Fallout中文維基
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Some call it the Phantom Death, 'cause that's what it is. You can't see it, you can't hear it, you can't even smell it. It basically builds up in your system. You never feel it until it's too late.Jake, Fallout

放射线(Radiation)是核爆之后的残余现象,有很长的存在周期(半衰期从数天到百万年不等)。该物质的来源主要是裂变后的残余废料。另一种可能来源,是炸弹与外界环境中非放射性同位素捕捉到中子所产生。放射线是辐射系列的重要元素,也是游戏的创新特点。

自然界中的放射线

短期存在的同位素快速地释放衰弱的能量,产生剧烈变化且迅速衰落的放射性场。长期存在的同位素能长时间地释放能量,产生的放射线略微温和但更持久。裂变起初会产生高等级的放射性源,同样衰减迅速,不过随着放射性减弱,衰落速率也下降。

这些放射性物质降落到地面成为辐射尘时,会及其危险。辐射程度主要取决于核爆高度,其次是核爆体积。假若核爆是真正空中爆裂(火球并未触及地面),当气化的放射性物质冷凝后浓缩并固化,其颗粒也会转化为如此状态。这些颗粒大部分由升起的火球带入大气高层,一部分由于火球产生的对流循环而沉积在底部。核爆规模越大,顶部的辐射尘就积累得越高越快,在底层所占比例就越小。当核爆场强小于100kT时,火球不会高于对流层--该处形成雨雪。所有的辐射尘因此将由气候在数月(通常更短)内,降落回地面。若是兆吨当量,火球会直升入同温层。同温层是干燥,不会有任何气候过程存在并将辐射迅速带回。微型辐射颗粒缓慢下降,通常需要数月甚至数年。当此类长期推迟的辐射尘最终抵达地面时,其危险性已经减低很多,而且散布在全球范围内。若场强越高于100kT,越多的辐射尘抵达同温层。

当核爆与地面接近(进到接触到地面),将吸收大量尘土进入火球。这些尘土并不会气化--若气化了,大部分将会形成大颗粒。放射性同位素沉积成固体颗粒,并快速返回地面。辐射尘会在数分钟至几天内沉积形成,在附近至数千公里范围带来顺风的污染物。最剧烈的放射源是就近辐射尘,因为该处高度沉积,同时短周期同位素还未衰减。气候因素会给该过程造成可观的影响。通常情况,降雨将辐射尘以降水形式带回地面,形成厚密度的地面聚集。外部接触放射源,或是内部接触(吸收放射性物质)会严重损害健康。不接触但接近地面的核爆,将产生中子活动,当低于喷发点时仍会带来危险。这些中子会被土壤吸收,在接下数小时内产生大量放射线。

计量方式

拉德(rad)是用来计量区域辐射放射水平的单位。当避难所科技工业公司开始兴建避难所时,同时也安装了可监测辐射放射线水平的感测器。检测结果通过公共通告系统向避难所居民公布。

在101号避难所的2268年7月13日,公共通告系统通告辐射水平--"目前放射水平-0拉德,如同往常。"("Current radiation level - 0 rads, as always.")

现实世界中,拉德(rad)是真实的计量单位,等于每千克0.01焦耳(1拉德意味着0.01焦耳的物质被1千克物质吸收),也即辐射吸收剂量(radiation absorbed dose)。

File:Ghoul .jpg

盗尸鬼,曾经的人类在吸收了大量的辐射放射线后变异。

变异

大部分在废土生存的变异生物都是由辐射导致。生物变异可能是直接来源于暴露在核弹爆炸后的辐射中。因为离子化的辐射(核弹辐射的主要类型)是由高能粒子组成,具有从分子和原子捕获电子的能力。如此一来便对活的有机体构成极度威胁,因为其能替换生物的DNA,进而变异--例如组织和器官无法正常生长。很有可能变异是由爆炸释放的放射颗粒所致。尽管如此,环境中放射性同位素(例如辐射)若是进入有机体身体,也能导致变异。例如,一只哺乳动物吸收Ca-45--钙的不稳定同位素,身体会认为是正常的钙并将其沉积于生物骨骼中,日积月累便病变为骨癌。

这便是巨型蚂蚁, 蜥蜴, 孢子植物, 辐射蝎, 双头牛以及其它变异体的起源。同样,这也是盗尸鬼--外表衰老,衣衫褴褛,几乎腐烂,像僵尸般辐射受害者--的由来。在辐射1中,大部分盗尸鬼来自12号避难所--位于贝克斯菲尔德市的地底,战后成为古城墓地--居民。作为庞大的避难所实验计划一部分,12号避难所大门设计成无法正确关闭锁死。因而,大量的辐射尘进入避难所,将大部分居民转变成为现在的盗尸鬼。通常,在辐射世界中,大剂量暴露于辐射会致死,但长时间持续暴露于此能将人转化为盗尸鬼。与超级变种人相似,盗尸鬼也是不育的。废土上的盗尸鬼只有一代且为最后一代。进一步而言,盗尸鬼的转变也使得其活得相当长。在2077年Great War中转变的盗尸鬼,直到2241仍在世,即便到了辐射3和辐射:新维加斯时期(2277-2281)也起居如常。盗尸鬼的智商与正常人一样,不过部分会逐渐失去理智而转变为野鬼。即便如此,他们极度丑陋的外表和身体的脆弱使日常生活非常艰辛。盗尸鬼天生对辐射免疫--事实上,辐射还能治愈他们的伤口。

无需质疑,以上不过是战前社会留下的浩劫后果之一(可从辐射3中得知):从各色移动载具到登月火箭,裂变电池到黑暗中发光的可乐,放射性物质被广泛使用于各种用途,人们在生活中无避免地暴露于各种日常用品中含有的辐射中。即便是"炸弹落下"后,"废土"中的居民对放射性物质仍没有抗拒心理:例如,名为"兆吨镇"("Megaton")的定居点建立在一枚未引爆的原子弹周围,而一些居民甚至组成了the Children of Atom cult来膜拜这枚核弹。

辐射世界中的放射源

大部分战前社会都广泛使用放射性物质,从核裂变车到含有放射性的软性饮料,世界的大部分地区对日常生活持续使用放射性物质习以为常。部分归因于随处可见的RadAway和Rad-X,可用于治疗普通公民的放射性中毒。

通常,暴露于放射线的主因是食用污染过的食物或水。大部分水源,特别是在净水计划启动前,是受到污染的。各种水源受污染程度皆不同,而饮用污染水源通常比直接接触水还危险。

核弹头造成的弹坑具有高辐射放射性,例如辐射3中的87号避难所或辐射:新维加斯中的黑山。

其余主要放射源是战前的核废料库。这些棕色或是白色桶能在不同地点见到,于近处发射出中低水平的放射线。在辐射世界中,大型废料场可向更广阔范围辐射高能级放射线。尽管现实世界限制堆放核废料,尽管抗议,辐射世界战前似乎没过多限制而且堆放是很常见的,可能是由于广泛使用的产品和实验产生大量的废料所致。在新维加斯的REPCONN Headquarters,造访工厂时可见纪念匾上书写关于堆放废料的事(甚至许可堆放在政府负责的学校之内),对此(他们认为)是明确无害的。

游戏中效果

Fallout, Fallout 2, Fallout Tactics
Rads Message HR CHP¹ ST PE EN CH IN AG
0-149 very nauseous
150-299 slightly fatigued -1
300-449 vomiting does not stop -3 -1 -1
450-599 hair is falling out -5 -5 -2 -1 -2
600-999 skin is falling off -10 -15 -4 -3 -3 -3 -1 -5
1000+ intense agony -10 -20 -6 -5 -5 -5 -3 -6
¹ Current Hit Points

The character has a hidden radiation ("Rad") count that can be checked with a Geiger counter. This rad count causes the effect of "radiated" to appear. As the count increases, further radiation poisoning occurs. Merely being "radiated" incurs no penalty. If the rad count gets high enough, SPECIAL stats begin to drop, and if any of these drop to zero due to poisoning, the character dies. Also, should the character survive to maximum irradiation (1000 rads) (as in their stats do not reach zero), the character has 24 hours to use enough RadAway to get themselves below 1000 rads or they will die. Radiation can be healed by RadAway and Rad-X and Vault City Inoculations can modify Radiation Resistance.

辐射3

Rads Level Effect
0-199 No Effect
200-399 Minor Radiation Poisoning -1 END
400-599 Advanced Radiation Poisoning -2 END, -1 AGL
600-799 Critical Radiation Poisoning -3 END, -2 AGL, -1 STR
800-999 Deadly Radiation Poisoning -3 END, -2 AGL, -2 STR
1000+ Fatal Radiation Poisoning DEATH (HP: -10,000)

吃喝大部分食物或是进入辐射区域,都会自动吸收辐射。当吸收剂量达到一定阈值时,孤游者会损失S.P.E.C.I.A.L. 属性值,而到1000拉德时便死亡。放射线并不直接影响生命值,但通过减少耐力,孤游者的最大健康值会降低。

The Pip-Boy 3000's dosimeter will appear in the upper right during exposure. There are five major ticks (200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000 rads), with minor ticks at multiples of 66.67, e.g., 67, 133, 200, 267, 333, 400, etc. The rad status can also be checked in the Pip-Boy to see rad resistance and rad level. There is also a dial in the upper-left of the Pip-Boy that shows the approximate radiation level. This meter is difficult to read due to the needle's constant movement.


Rad exposure is usually limited; only very rarely will zones be so irradiated that venturing into them results in a quick death. One needs to stand in +1 rad water for a significant time and more generally it is possible to move through radioactive water dozens of times before reaching the 200 rad threshold. 消除辐射的方式包括:

  • 在医生处消耗100瓶盖消除所有辐射。
  • 使用一个RadAway消除一定剂量的辐射,具体消除量取决于玩家的医疗技能(最高减150拉德)。
  • UUsing the personal infirmary to remove all rads.
  • The Rad Absorption perk slowly decreases the radiation level.
  • The Nuclear Anomaly perk gets rid of all rads upon activation.
  • Point Lookout (add-on) Consuming certain foods, such as cave fungus or wild and refined punga fruit.

Radiation can be resisted by equipping certain types of apparel, such as radiation suits or power armor. A dose of the chem Rad-X also grants the player character radiation resistance based on their Medicine skill, but the effects do not stack. This resistance is applied to all sources of radiation, from the external environment to irradiated consumables.

The Lead Belly perk halves the rads taken from any irradiated water drank while the Rad Resistance and Cyborg perks raise the overall radiation resistance. Also, if completed the 'contract radiation sickness' part of Wasteland Survival Guide with a reading of 600 rads or more (the optional objective), the Rad Regeneration perk is given.

All non-player characters are immune to radiation. This explains why non-player characters like Confessor Cromwell (who stand in irradiated water at almost all times) do not die from radiation poisoning. Certain enemies, such as glowing ones or centaurs, have radiation-based attacks that can give the player character rads. Nearly any puddle of filth-infested liquid will contain at least some rads per second, while most of these similar puddles in Fallout: New Vegas do not contain any rads at all.

Accessing the Pip-Boy to eat or drink anything that will make the rad level cross the 1001-Rad death threshold will trigger a notification that will mention being affected by "fatal rad poisoning." At this instant, it will not kill but exiting the Pip-Boy without using any item that would lower the radiation below 1001 will be instantly fatal.

辐射: 新维加斯

Fallout: New Vegas uses the same radiation mechanics as Fallout 3, keeping some perks, such as Lead Belly, Rad Resistance and Rad Absorption, while adding two new perks, Rad Child and Atomic. Ways to remove radiation poisoning include:

  • Using RadAway.
  • Seeing a doctor.
  • Consuming cave fungus.
  • Old World Blues (add-on) Using the Auto-Doc in Big MT's the Sink.
  • Lonesome Road (add-on) The Irradiated Beauty perk removes rads while sleeping.
  • Lonesome Road (add-on) Consuming fiery purgative.
Fallout 4

The radiation system has been retooled so that radiation decreases max health as radiation poisoning rises. The rate is 1% of HP per 10 rads; this means that 1000 is still the fatal level as in previous games. In addition, Fallout 4 features radiation damage as a damage type that can appear on weapons. This is actually composed of two different types of radiation damage, one of which will be referred to here as "poisoning" and the other as "damage" for clarity.

Radiation poisoning is the more common type; for example, it is the effect on all "irradiated" legendary weapon prefixes and the gamma gun. This functions exactly like environmental radiation in Fallout 4: 10 points of radiation poisoning will reduce max health by 1%. This gets reflected as actual damage, even if a character is at full health. Moreover, since this directly affects maximum health, this is damage that can't be healed. Even legendary enemy mutations or the resethealth console command will restore health only up to any limits from radiation poisoning.

Health loss from radiation poisoning as well as the radiation poisoning itself is unaffected by difficulty settings. This has the side effect that radiation damage on weapons becomes much more useful on Very Hard or Survival (since normally weapons will only do half damage, but health loss from radiation and the radiation poisoning itself is still at full effect) and less useful on Very Easy (since the base damage of a weapon will likely dwarf whatever the radiation poisoning can do). Radiation poisoning is not influenced by damage bonuses (such as from taking Psycho). Only Nuclear Physicist appears to increase radiation poisoning.

The game distinguishes between radiation immunity (present on e.g. super mutants) and resistance (present in high quantities on e.g. feral ghouls). This is important because some weapons do pure radiation damage that ignores radiation immunity. These weapons are still affected by radiation resistance, so they will do more damage to an "immune" target than one with high resistance. Groups such as the Children of Atom have weaponized radiation to create traps and even handheld weapons ranging from improvised pistols to automatic rifles and grenades.

Pure radiation damage is rare. For example, Lorenzo's Artifact has a radiation damage component that does pure damage. It never will inflict radiation poisoning on the enemy. Ways to remove radiation poisoning:

  • RadAway, amount removed varies with the Medic perk (value without perk: 30%. Medic Level 4: 100%).
  • X-111 compound
  • By going through a decontamination chamber such as in Mass Fusion building.
  • Visiting a doctor.
  • Having the Solar Powered level 2 perk.
  • Mutant hound chops from cooking station. Cures 50 rads.
  • Refreshing beverage from cooking station. Cures 1,000 rads + etc.
  • Mysterious serum From Lorenzo if one chooses his side in the Secret of Cabot House.
  • Nuka-World (add-on) Having the Ghoulish level 4 perk.
  • Wasteland Workshop By using a decontamination arch.
Fallout 76
主页面: Fallout 76 mutations

Fallout 76's rad system is much the same as Fallout 4, apart from the fact that the more irradiated the player character is, the higher chance they have of getting a mutation.

Fallout Shelter

Dwellers automatically accumulate radiation over time if the player character's water supply dips low or if they are exploring the wasteland/questing, and will do so until their water is replenished or they return from the wasteland/a quest. Being attacked by radscorpions and ghouls will also inflict radiation damage. RadAway will remove all radiation from the player character instantly, while a steady supply of clean water will reduce it over time.

Radiation is represented as a red bar on one's HP bar, going from right to left. Radiation damage cannot be healed by normal methods of HP recovery, but cannot kill a player character, and thus acts as a limiting factor to their max HP until healed.

Fallout: The Board Game

When passing through a radioactive zone, or being attacked by an enemy with a radiation attack, the players can obtain rads, except for The Ghoul who instead heals HP equal to Rad damage. The Super Mutant works differently also, as he gains 1 XP per point of radiation he takes, but still takes the rad damage. When a player's Rad's damage is higher than the player's current HP, the player is dead. Radioactive zones deal 1 Rad damage upon entering the space, and enemies with radioactive damage will deal rad damage times their level.

登场

放射线出现在所有的“辐射”游戏中。

幕后

  • 在游戏中,辐射的危害程度比真实世界要小。 出现辐射病的常见症状(如恶心、呕吐)时的吸收剂量大约为1000 mGy 或 1 Gy (100 rads)。 4000 mSv 或 4 Gy (400 rads) 的吸收剂量会在四到六周内导致50%的个体死亡。 6000 mSv 或 6 Gy (600 rads) 会在二到四周内导致95%的个体死亡, 并且 10000 mSv 或 10 Gy (1000 rads) 会在两周内导致死亡。游戏将其抽象化并立即杀死玩家角色。[1][2]
  • 可能立即致命的全身剂量必须达到数万拉德,因为暴露于多达30000拉德可能需要48个小时才能证明是致命的。 [3]

参考

非游戏资源