... 
Gametitle-FO1.pngGametitle-FO2.pngGametitle-FO3.pngGametitle-FNV.pngGametitle-FO4.pngGametitle-FO76.png
Gametitle-FO1.pngGametitle-FO2.pngGametitle-FO3.pngGametitle-FNV.pngGametitle-FO4.pngGametitle-FO76.pngGametitle-FOT.pngGametitle-FOBOS.pngGametitle-FOS.png

FO3 V87 entry.jpg

Some call it the Phantom Death, 'cause that's what it is. You can't see it, you can't hear it, you can't even smell it. It basically builds up in your system. You never feel it until it's too late.Jake, Fallout

放射線(Radiation)是核爆之後的殘餘現象,有很長的存在周期(半衰期從數天到百萬年不等)。該物質的來源主要是裂變後的殘餘廢料。另一種可能來源,是炸彈與外界環境中非放射性同位素捕捉到中子所產生。放射線是輻射系列的重要元素,也是遊戲的創新特點。

自然界中的放射線

短期存在的同位素快速地釋放衰弱的能量,產生劇烈變化且迅速衰落的放射性場。長期存在的同位素能長時間地釋放能量,產生的放射線略微溫和但更持久。裂變起初會產生高等級的放射性源,同樣衰減迅速,不過隨著放射性減弱,衰落速率也下降。

這些放射性物質降落到地面成為輻射塵時,會及其危險。輻射程度主要取決於核爆高度,其次是核爆體積。假若核爆是真正空中爆裂(火球並未觸及地面),當氣化的放射性物質冷凝後濃縮並固化,其顆粒也會轉化為如此狀態。這些顆粒大部分由升起的火球帶入大氣高層,一部分由於火球產生的對流循環而沉積在底部。核爆規模越大,頂部的輻射塵就積累得越高越快,在底層所佔比例就越小。當核爆場強小於100kT時,火球不會高於對流層--該處形成雨雪。所有的輻射塵因此將由氣候在數月(通常更短)內,降落回地面。若是兆噸當量,火球會直升入同溫層。同溫層是乾燥,不會有任何氣候過程存在並將輻射迅速帶回。微型輻射顆粒緩慢下降,通常需要數月甚至數年。當此類長期推遲的輻射塵最終抵達地面時,其危險性已經減低很多,而且散布在全球範圍內。若場強越高於100kT,越多的輻射塵抵達同溫層。

當核爆與地面接近(進到接觸到地面),將吸收大量塵土進入火球。這些塵土並不會氣化--若氣化了,大部分將會形成大顆粒。放射性同位素沉積成固體顆粒,並快速返回地面。輻射塵會在數分鐘至幾天內沉積形成,在附近至數千公里範圍帶來順風的污染物。最劇烈的放射源是就近輻射塵,因為該處高度沉積,同時短周期同位素還未衰減。氣候因素會給該過程造成可觀的影響。通常情況,降雨將輻射塵以降水形式帶回地面,形成厚密度的地面聚集。外部接觸放射源,或是內部接觸(吸收放射性物質)會嚴重損害健康。不接觸但接近地面的核爆,將產生中子活動,當低於噴發點時仍會帶來危險。這些中子會被土壤吸收,在接下數小時內產生大量放射線。

計量方式

拉德(rad)是用來計量區域輻射放射水平的單位。當避難所科技工業公司開始興建避難所時,同時也安裝了可監測輻射放射線水平的感測器。檢測結果通過公共通告系統向避難所居民公布。

在101號避難所的2268年7月13日,公共通告系統通告輻射水平--"目前放射水平-0拉德,如同往常。"("Current radiation level - 0 rads, as always.")

現實世界中,拉德(rad)是真實的計量單位,等於每千克0.01焦耳(1拉德意味著0.01焦耳的物質被1千克物質吸收),也即輻射吸收劑量(radiation absorbed dose)。

File:Ghoul .jpg

盗尸鬼,曾经的人类在吸收了大量的辐射放射线后变异。

變異

大部分在廢土生存的變異生物都是由輻射導致。生物變異可能是直接來源於暴露在核彈爆炸後的輻射中。因為離子化的輻射(核彈輻射的主要類型)是由高能粒子組成,具有從分子和原子捕獲電子的能力。如此一來便對活的有機體構成極度威脅,因為其能替換生物的DNA,進而變異--例如組織和器官無法正常生長。很有可能變異是由爆炸釋放的放射顆粒所致。儘管如此,環境中放射性同位素(例如輻射)若是進入有機體身體,也能導致變異。例如,一隻哺乳動物吸收Ca-45--鈣的不穩定同位素,身體會認為是正常的鈣並將其沉積於生物骨骼中,日積月累便病變為骨癌。

這便是巨型螞蟻, 蜥蜴, 孢子植物, 輻射蠍, 雙頭牛以及其它變異體的起源。同樣,這也是盜屍鬼--外表衰老,衣衫襤褸,幾乎腐爛,像殭屍般輻射受害者--的由來。在輻射1中,大部分盜屍鬼來自12號避難所--位於貝克斯菲爾德市的地底,戰後成為古城墓地--居民。作為龐大的避難所實驗計劃一部分,12號避難所大門設計成無法正確關閉鎖死。因而,大量的輻射塵進入避難所,將大部分居民轉變成為現在的盜屍鬼。通常,在輻射世界中,大劑量暴露於輻射會致死,但長時間持續暴露於此能將人轉化為盜屍鬼。與超級變種人相似,盜屍鬼也是不育的。廢土上的盜屍鬼只有一代且為最後一代。進一步而言,盜屍鬼的轉變也使得其活得相當長。在2077年Great War中轉變的盜屍鬼,直到2241仍在世,即便到了輻射3和輻射:新維加斯時期(2277-2281)也起居如常。盜屍鬼的智商與正常人一樣,不過部分會逐漸失去理智而轉變為野鬼。即便如此,他們極度醜陋的外表和身體的脆弱使日常生活非常艱辛。盜屍鬼天生對輻射免疫--事實上,輻射還能治癒他們的傷口。

無需質疑,以上不過是戰前社會留下的浩劫後果之一(可從輻射3中得知):從各色移動載具到登月火箭,裂變電池到黑暗中發光的可樂,放射性物質被廣泛使用於各種用途,人們在生活中無避免地暴露於各種日常用品中含有的輻射中。即便是"炸彈落下"後,"廢土"中的居民對放射性物質仍沒有抗拒心理:例如,名為"兆噸鎮"("Megaton")的定居點建立在一枚未引爆的原子彈周圍,而一些居民甚至組成了the Children of Atom cult來膜拜這枚核彈。

輻射世界中的放射源

大部分戰前社會都廣泛使用放射性物質,從核裂變車到含有放射性的軟性飲料,世界的大部分地區對日常生活持續使用放射性物質習以為常。部分歸因於隨處可見的RadAway和Rad-X,可用於治療普通公民的放射性中毒。

通常,暴露於放射線的主因是食用污染過的食物或水。大部分水源,特別是在凈水計劃啟動前,是受到污染的。各種水源受污染程度皆不同,而飲用污染水源通常比直接接觸水還危險。

核彈頭造成的彈坑具有高輻射放射性,例如輻射3中的87號避難所或輻射:新維加斯中的黑山。

其餘主要放射源是戰前的核廢料庫。這些棕色或是白色桶能在不同地點見到,於近處發射出中低水平的放射線。在輻射世界中,大型廢料場可向更廣闊範圍輻射高能級放射線。儘管現實世界限制堆放核廢料,儘管抗議,輻射世界戰前似乎沒過多限制而且堆放是很常見的,可能是由於廣泛使用的產品和實驗產生大量的廢料所致。在新維加斯的REPCONN Headquarters,造訪工廠時可見紀念匾上書寫關於堆放廢料的事(甚至許可堆放在政府負責的學校之內),對此(他們認為)是明確無害的。

遊戲中效果

Fallout, Fallout 2, Fallout Tactics
Rads Message HR CHP¹ ST PE EN CH IN AG
0-149 very nauseous
150-299 slightly fatigued -1
300-449 vomiting does not stop -3 -1 -1
450-599 hair is falling out -5 -5 -2 -1 -2
600-999 skin is falling off -10 -15 -4 -3 -3 -3 -1 -5
1000+ intense agony -10 -20 -6 -5 -5 -5 -3 -6
¹ Current Hit Points

The character has a hidden radiation ("Rad") count that can be checked with a Geiger counter. This rad count causes the effect of "radiated" to appear. As the count increases, further radiation poisoning occurs. Merely being "radiated" incurs no penalty. If the rad count gets high enough, SPECIAL stats begin to drop, and if any of these drop to zero due to poisoning, the character dies. Also, should the character survive to maximum irradiation (1000 rads) (as in their stats do not reach zero), the character has 24 hours to use enough RadAway to get themselves below 1000 rads or they will die. Radiation can be healed by RadAway and Rad-X and Vault City Inoculations can modify Radiation Resistance.

輻射3

Rads Level Effect
0-199 No Effect
200-399 Minor Radiation Poisoning -1 END
400-599 Advanced Radiation Poisoning -2 END, -1 AGL
600-799 Critical Radiation Poisoning -3 END, -2 AGL, -1 STR
800-999 Deadly Radiation Poisoning -3 END, -2 AGL, -2 STR
1000+ Fatal Radiation Poisoning DEATH (HP: -10,000)

吃喝大部分食物或是進入輻射區域,都會自動吸收輻射。當吸收劑量達到一定閾值時,孤遊者會損失S.P.E.C.I.A.L. 屬性值,而到1000拉德時便死亡。放射線並不直接影響生命值,但通過減少耐力,孤遊者的最大健康值會降低。

The Pip-Boy 3000's dosimeter will appear in the upper right during exposure. There are five major ticks (200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000 rads), with minor ticks at multiples of 66.67, e.g., 67, 133, 200, 267, 333, 400, etc. The rad status can also be checked in the Pip-Boy to see rad resistance and rad level. There is also a dial in the upper-left of the Pip-Boy that shows the approximate radiation level. This meter is difficult to read due to the needle's constant movement.


Rad exposure is usually limited; only very rarely will zones be so irradiated that venturing into them results in a quick death. One needs to stand in +1 rad water for a significant time and more generally it is possible to move through radioactive water dozens of times before reaching the 200 rad threshold. 消除辐射的方式包括:

Radiation can be resisted by equipping certain types of apparel, such as radiation suits or power armor. A dose of the chem Rad-X also grants the player character radiation resistance based on their Medicine skill, but the effects do not stack. This resistance is applied to all sources of radiation, from the external environment to irradiated consumables.

The Lead Belly perk halves the rads taken from any irradiated water drank while the Rad Resistance and Cyborg perks raise the overall radiation resistance. Also, if completed the 'contract radiation sickness' part of Wasteland Survival Guide with a reading of 600 rads or more (the optional objective), the Rad Regeneration perk is given.

All non-player characters are immune to radiation. This explains why non-player characters like Confessor Cromwell (who stand in irradiated water at almost all times) do not die from radiation poisoning. Certain enemies, such as glowing ones or centaurs, have radiation-based attacks that can give the player character rads. Nearly any puddle of filth-infested liquid will contain at least some rads per second, while most of these similar puddles in Fallout: New Vegas do not contain any rads at all.

Accessing the Pip-Boy to eat or drink anything that will make the rad level cross the 1001-Rad death threshold will trigger a notification that will mention being affected by "fatal rad poisoning." At this instant, it will not kill but exiting the Pip-Boy without using any item that would lower the radiation below 1001 will be instantly fatal.

輻射: 新維加斯

Fallout: New Vegas uses the same radiation mechanics as Fallout 3, keeping some perks, such as Lead Belly, Rad Resistance and Rad Absorption, while adding two new perks, Rad Child and Atomic. Ways to remove radiation poisoning include:

Fallout 4

The radiation system has been retooled so that radiation decreases max health as radiation poisoning rises. The rate is 1% of HP per 10 rads; this means that 1000 is still the fatal level as in previous games. In addition, Fallout 4 features radiation damage as a damage type that can appear on weapons. This is actually composed of two different types of radiation damage, one of which will be referred to here as "poisoning" and the other as "damage" for clarity.

Radiation poisoning is the more common type; for example, it is the effect on all "irradiated" legendary weapon prefixes and the gamma gun. This functions exactly like environmental radiation in Fallout 4: 10 points of radiation poisoning will reduce max health by 1%. This gets reflected as actual damage, even if a character is at full health. Moreover, since this directly affects maximum health, this is damage that can't be healed. Even legendary enemy mutations or the resethealth console command will restore health only up to any limits from radiation poisoning.

Health loss from radiation poisoning as well as the radiation poisoning itself is unaffected by difficulty settings. This has the side effect that radiation damage on weapons becomes much more useful on Very Hard or Survival (since normally weapons will only do half damage, but health loss from radiation and the radiation poisoning itself is still at full effect) and less useful on Very Easy (since the base damage of a weapon will likely dwarf whatever the radiation poisoning can do). Radiation poisoning is not influenced by damage bonuses (such as from taking Psycho). Only Nuclear Physicist appears to increase radiation poisoning.

The game distinguishes between radiation immunity (present on e.g. super mutants) and resistance (present in high quantities on e.g. feral ghouls). This is important because some weapons do pure radiation damage that ignores radiation immunity. These weapons are still affected by radiation resistance, so they will do more damage to an "immune" target than one with high resistance. Groups such as the Children of Atom have weaponized radiation to create traps and even handheld weapons ranging from improvised pistols to automatic rifles and grenades.

Pure radiation damage is rare. For example, Lorenzo's Artifact has a radiation damage component that does pure damage. It never will inflict radiation poisoning on the enemy. Ways to remove radiation poisoning:

Fallout 76

Fallout 76's rad system is much the same as Fallout 4, apart from the fact that the more irradiated the player character is, the higher chance they have of getting a mutation.

Fallout Shelter

Dwellers automatically accumulate radiation over time if the player character's water supply dips low or if they are exploring the wasteland/questing, and will do so until their water is replenished or they return from the wasteland/a quest. Being attacked by radscorpions and ghouls will also inflict radiation damage. RadAway will remove all radiation from the player character instantly, while a steady supply of clean water will reduce it over time.

Radiation is represented as a red bar on one's HP bar, going from right to left. Radiation damage cannot be healed by normal methods of HP recovery, but cannot kill a player character, and thus acts as a limiting factor to their max HP until healed.

Fallout: The Board Game

When passing through a radioactive zone, or being attacked by an enemy with a radiation attack, the players can obtain rads, except for The Ghoul who instead heals HP equal to Rad damage. The Super Mutant works differently also, as he gains 1 XP per point of radiation he takes, but still takes the rad damage. When a player's Rad's damage is higher than the player's current HP, the player is dead. Radioactive zones deal 1 Rad damage upon entering the space, and enemies with radioactive damage will deal rad damage times their level.

登场

放射線出现在所有的“辐射”游戏中。

幕后

  • 在游戏中,辐射的危害程度比真实世界要小。 出现辐射病的常见症状(如恶心、呕吐)时的吸收剂量大约为1000 mGy 或 1 Gy (100 rads)。 4000 mSv 或 4 Gy (400 rads) 的吸收剂量会在四到六周内导致50%的个体死亡。 6000 mSv 或 6 Gy (600 rads) 会在二到四周内导致95%的个体死亡, 并且 10000 mSv 或 10 Gy (1000 rads) 会在两周内导致死亡。游戏将其抽象化并立即杀死玩家角色。[1][2]
  • 可能立即致命的全身剂量必须达到数万拉德,因为暴露于多达30000拉德可能需要48个小时才能证明是致命的。 [3]

参考

非游戏资源

社区内容除另有注明外,均在CC-BY-SA许可协议下提供。