You have mastered the firearm as a source of pain. With this perk, any successful hit in combat with a ranged weapon will be upgraded to a critical hit if you also make a Luck roll. It adds another Luck roll of (10*Luck), hence having 10 LK converts every hit to critical and indirectly causes target's armor DR to be ignored regardless of player weapon. The perk synergises extremely well with weapons capable of burst fire, as every shot in one burst is upgraded. Taken in combination with Better Criticals' 20% chance for insta-kill, it makes burst mode extremely deadly.
With the Sniper perk, your chance to hit an opponent's head in V.A.T.S. is increased by 25%. As with most perks that increase your chance to hit in V.A.T.S. this bonus is multiplicative, not additive. For example, if you had a 50% chance to hit an enemy's head without the perk, you would have a 62.5% chance with the perk.
In Fallout: New Vegas, this perk is useful for counter-acting the Fast Shot trait.
“It's all about focus. Like Gunslinger and Commando (for your other weapon types), this allows further flexibility when utilising any nonauto scoped rifle. A list of this weapon type is provided in the Weapons chapter. If you favor these types of guns, this is your first perk choice.”— Fallout 4 Vault Dweller's Survival Guide description
In Fallout Tactics, version 1.27 does not produce the advertised result of the Sniper perk. The perk is obtainable but appears to be bugged (tests with 10 LK have failed to produce any noticeable increase in critical strike rate, which should produce a 100% critical strike rate).[verified]
PCPlaystation 4 In Fallout 4, while sneaking, the combination of the first rank of Sniper and wearing armor with Stabilization mods on both arms is enough to stop virtually all sway when looking down a sniper scope. However, this may stop working. Having the Cloak & Dagger perk may contribute to this bug.[verified]
Using the console to first remove each level of the Sniper perk and then reapply them may fix the issue. For someone with all 3 ranks in Sniper, the commands run after opening the console with ~ would be: