Robobrains were created before the Great War by General Atomics International both for the U.S. military and for the civilian sector. Official government records list only chimpanzee brains as being used in the robots, but at least some human brains were taken from the bodies of executed criminals. Many of these criminals were insane, so the resulting robobrains also tended to be unstable, despite complete reprogramming via the CODE technology. Some of these human-robobrains hybrids would try to kill themselves, apparently resenting being made into cyborgs. Rarely, some used the robobrain technology as a means of life extension. They underwent the procedure willingly and were not mind wiped. Bert Riggs, a lead developer of the robobrain project, lived hundreds of years beyond the war this way.