With this perk, every 10 Nuka-Colas you acquire are automatically converted into a Nuka-Cola Quantum. A notification in the top left of the screen will inform the player of the 10 Nuka-Colas being removed and the 1 Nuka-Cola Quantum being added. If you are trying to do the Nuka-Cola Challenge, it would take 300 Nuka-Colas to get the necessary 30 Nuka-Cola Quantums.
As soon as you reach 10 Nuka-Colas in inventory, they are replaced by 1 Quantum. This may be detrimental if you primarily use Nuka-Colas to restore health, and can be avoided by ensuring you carry less, or carry stock of Ice Cold Nuka-Cola.
This perk allows the player to circumvent the hard limit of Nuka-Cola Quantums placed in the game (94 loose in the world, plus the possibility of finding up to 152 in vending machines). Since regular Nuka-Colas can be found restocked in merchant inventories, this perk allows for a potentially unlimited number of Quantums. This can be a great way to get enough Quantums for the Nuka-Cola Challenge quest, as these Quantums will work the same as if you found one before having this Perk.
With this perk, gaining the third Nuka-grenade schematic will result in receiving three grenades for each bottle of Quantum, equating to a "cost" of just over three bottles of Nuka-Cola per grenade.
Ice Cold Nuka-Cola is not affected by this perk.
In the game, the Science skill requirement is not noted for this perk.