The crate that contains this item can be "re-rolled" by loading a save from before exiting the silo for the first time. The conversation with Ulysses (through ED-E) will need to be repeated each time, but exiting the missile silo bunker for the first time is when the crate contents are set.
At one point during development, Nuka-Cola Quantum was to appear in the base game without any add-ons. The item was fully implemented and even adjusted to work correctly with Hardcore mode. Presumably, the role of Quantum as an Action Point boosting beverage (which it was in Fallout 3) was passed on to Nuka-Cola Victory.
Nuka-Cola Quantum's proposed slogan "Take the leap... enjoy a Quantum!" is a pun dealing with the scientific term "quantum leap", which refers to the phenomenon where an electron nearly instantaneously (within a few nanoseconds) leaps from one energy level (aka quantum state) to another.
Nuka-Cola Quantum may be a reference to the short-lived Coca-Cola C2 which was advertised as having "half the carbohydrates, sugars and calories" of regular Coca-Cola, an almost opposite of Quantum's advertisement of "twice the calories, twice the carbohydrates, twice the caffeine and twice the taste" of regular Nuka-Cola.