The origins of the army are not detailed, but by 2241 it was the largest standing army in New California, composed of several divisions, including special (mechanized) cavalry and other mechanized units. The New California Republic Rangers, originally an independent paramilitary force, were incorporated into the military in subsequent decades, becoming an indispensable element of its operations. Until the containment operations against the Enclave at Navarro, following the destruction of their capital and headquarters, the Army's primary foes were raiders, such as the Fiends, Vipers, and Great Khans. Decades of fighting an asymmetric war against them turned the Army into a powerful instrument of foreign policy. The Army has continued to grow and serve NCR's interests, securing its expansion and protecting territories under its control. Following the death of President Tandi, it has also became an instrument of expansion, further developing its numbers. In 2253, the retaliatory Pacification of the Mojave was carried out by an overwhelming force of three battalions, in a protracted war that lasted seventeen years. Soldiers of the army distinguished themselves, including future President Aaron Kimball.
By 2281, the NCRA was the single largest military force in the wasteland, rivaled only by Caesar's Legion. Organized into regular Army divisions and battalions, specialist units like a sharpshooter-skirmisher battalion, and additional Ranger battalions, the NCRA has thousands of troops at its disposal, enough to absorb the continued loss of one thousand troops each year in the Mojave Campaign alone and still retain operational capability. However, the effectiveness of its operations was hampered by the influence of brahmin barons. Although they only had one vote at the ballot box, their wealth made it easy for them to influence decision makers to protect their interests at the expense of the general population or ongoing military ooperations: Heavy infantry units, soldiers with normal and salvaged power armor suits, were deployed on the home front to protect the barons' ranches from small-time raiders, while rank-and-file troops are sent to the Mojave to maintain the occupation, often without proper service rifles or body armor.
The ongoing occupation of the Mojave coupled with Legion's deliberate deliberate lack of activity resulted in negligence. The quality of training among soldiers deployed to the theater deteriorate: Replacements are shipped out with merely two weeks of training, just to maintain the occupation, with these poorly trained conscripts routinely subjected to harsh disciplinary measures, rather than competent command. As a result, when the Legion launched operations to secure beachheads on the western bank of the Colorado to pave the way for the Second Battle of Hoover Dam, the occupation forces had few resources with which to respond, leading to the Searchlight Sabotage, and the subsequent fall of Nelson and the destruction of Nipton. Only in the face of the approaching Battle did Army command finally wrangle enough support to redeploy heavy infantry and veteran Ranger units to the frontline, bolstering the Army presence.
Based on the pre-War United States Armed Forces chain of command and organization, the New California Republic Army uses many of the same elements, adjusted to fit the smaller population and army size. When intact, this chain of command fosters a very capable fighting force; however, should this structure be broken, soldiers become unable to operate efficiently without a commander and usually retreat from battle.
Under the Kimball administration, sexism has reared its ugly head once more. The reactionary undercurrent has led to a disproportionate rate of promotions among male military officers as opposed to female ones. 
The New California Republic's military is predominantly an infantry force, with a number of specialized divisions. Light infantry form the basic component of the Army, relying on large units of troopers deployed against the enemies of the Republic, from raider gangs and mutants to the Brotherhood and the Legion.
The infantry have numerous specialized battalions and units exist, including:
Originally a paramilitary abolitionist force under Chief Elise, the Rangers became a part of Republic's military operations by 2271 and the signing of the Ranger Unification Treaty, which extended NCR jurisdiction into southern Nevada. Rangers serve as the Republic's special forces and elite light infantry units, and Army soldiers can voluntarily transfer to the Rangers either at their own initiative or by invitation from Rangers. They are formally separate, using their own ranks and distinctive equipment (such as the patrol armor or the venerated Black armor), but in practice they are folded into the Army's military command. Aside from typical military operations, they are routinely used for tasks outside the purview of the Army, such as internal investigations, or assassinations.
The NCR has limited airpower, with a fleet of captured Vertibirds for special missions (with some of them stationed at border outposts, such as the one on the Long 15), with at least one Vertibird being reserved as the president's personal vehicle ("Bear Force One").
The New California Republic has a mechanized vehicle division. The primary limitation is the supply of tires and other degradable parts that greatly limit the possibility for fielding any larger scale vehicle fleet. It is known, however, that the NCR logistics corps employ several former United States Armytrucks for transport, and several scavenged jeeps and tanks. These are kept running by a dedicated team of mechanics and well-stocked workshops, such as the truck repair depot at Camp McCarran.
The Army has an eligible age of 16 for military service, although volunteers this young are rare. Competence is rewarded with swift promotion, and exceptional soldiers can reach officer ranks within a year. Volunteers already in the service may elect to transfer to the NCR Rangers or even be invited to join. An honorable discharge is also a guaranteed path to lucrative jobs in the heartland of the NCR.
However, despite the prospects, the Army draws most of its manpower from NCR states through conscription. A majority of the troopers, especially in the Mojave theater, are drafted, due to the need to maintain a front line along the Colorado against the Legion and against other enemies of the Republic elsewhere. Conscription is egalitarian and both men and women are drafted, resulting in a rough 50/50 division of sexes among active duty troopers, in stark contrast to the exclusively male slave warriors of Legion.
Training in general tends to be limited to essential military skills. Many draftees and volunteers come from farming and ranching backgrounds, and learn to handle firearms at a very young age. Some go on to become elite sharpshooters. However, this has drawbacks: A significant number of draftees receiving just two weeks of training before being shipped out to the frontier. Predictably, this results in disciplinary problems particularly among troops stationed in reach of New Vegas Strip.
While modern in terms of organization, some elements thereof hearken back to methods utilized by the armies of Classical Antiquity, similar to the Roman punishments used by Caesar's Legion. Flogging can be used as a non-judicial punishment for desertion or suspicion thereof. The war with the Legion and the fall-off in training levels result in it being used too liberally at times.
Of course, it depends on circumstances. Desertion in the face of the enemy is a capital offense, with the penalty being hanging. Desertion under other circumstances or severe dishonorable conduct, such as armed robbery by active soldiers, is punished in the same way..
The pay in the army's service varies greatly. Enlisted troopers are frequently paid poorly, with privates receiving less than 200 caps in monthly wages. On the other hand, the army does offer generous benefits and financial security in the long term, if a trooper completes his service and earns an honorable discharge. Good readiness evaluations can result in the army giving raises to well-performing soldiers.
As the military arm of the NCR, matters of diplomacy are left to be decided by the civilian branch of the government, (the president and the congress). Outsiders' view of the military depends on their relationship with the NCR.
With laws enacted during President Tandi's administration, the NCR recognizes the rights of prisoners of war and approaches their care humanely and free from abuse. Most officers find these laws to be constricting, but resourceful officers find ways around it by employing the service of outside consultants.
The Army of the Republic enjoys a substantial advantage over many of its competitors, thanks to a strong industrial base, a large supply of manpower and rugged, standardized technologies. Its biggest advantage, however, are command and control capabilities: The Army uses computer software to coordinate and evaluate its troops, with radio and satellite communications providing real-time coordination of its military operations.
The M&A 9mm pistol is the standard sidearm of both officers and soldiers, though some can be found carrying
10mm pistols. All of these weapons are provided by the Gun Runners, who handle a majority of the weapons contracts of the Army. The standard armor consists of a metal breastplate and backplate supported by leather straps with leather shoulder protectors worn over brown fatigues. The NCR is also known to use mine tactics; Chief Hanlon is famous for it.
↑The Courier: "Tell me about the NCR." Cassandra Moore: "I don't have time to discuss all the different aspects of the NCR with you, but if you want it all in a nutshell - the NCR is progress. If you wander around the wasteland you'll find all sorts of tribes, villages, and such where people spend most of their time trying to survive. The NCR gives its citizens a shot at something more. We have laws, currency, health care, government. All the things that were lost. It's not perfect, but it's worth protecting, which is why we also have the largest military in existence." (Cassandra Moore's dialogue)
↑ 2.02.1Fallout: New Vegas Official Game Guide Collector's Edition p.458: "Important Dates 2248: President Tandi takes ill and dies at the age of 103. Her presidency has lasted 52 years. Vice-President Joanna Tibbett assumes office. 2253: President Tibbett is removed from office by a vote of no confidence following her "timid" response to the massacre of 38 NCR citizens at the hands of Mojave raiders. Her replacement, President Wendell Peterson, orders three battalions of NCR infantry into the Mojave." (Behind the Bright Lights & Big City)
↑Aaron Kimball: "They suffered through water shortages, raider attacks, and the Brotherhood War. Like our mighty Sierra Nevadas, they endured. But the time came when they could no longer shoulder the burden alone. Twelve years ago, they called out for help, and the republic heard them. Troopers and rangers, just like you, answered the clarion call. Men and women stepped forward to say, "I will carry the weight." And at Owen's Lake, we made true on our promise, driving out the raider tribes to establish a lasting peace in the eastern Sierra Nevadas. We carried the weight, and though we left behind many of our brothers and sisters on that battlefield, it did not break us." (Aaron Kimball's dialogue)
↑ 4.04.1Hayes: "I'm Lieutenant Hayes of the New California Republic Army, 5th Battalion, 1st Company. What's your business?" (Hayes' dialogue)
↑The Courier: "That's crazy." Hanlon: "Maybe fifty rangers will die on that dam. We lose over a thousand troopers every year. Being here is crazy. Getting out's the only sane thing to do." (Hanlon's dialogue)
↑ 7.07.1The Courier: "What about the troopers?" Hanlon: "You've seen it yourself. Some of them don't even have proper service rifles or armor. Our heavy infantry, power armor units, they're back in NCR territory protecting the interests of Brahmin barons against small-time raiders. Brahmin barons only have one vote at the ballot box, but they have a lot of money to throw around." (Hanlon's dialogue)
↑ 8.08.18.2The Courier: "Administrative discharge? What does that mean?" Arms merchant: "It means my C.O. was an asshole, and I told him to eat shit. He ordered me to flog a couple "deserters." Those kids didn't desert. They just got liquored up on the Strip and missed roll call. I don't know what else the brass expects... half these kids don't get more than two weeks of training before they ship 'em out here." (Arms merchant's dialogue)
↑Appearance of high level heavy troopers and veteran Rangers in the final chapter of the game.
↑The Courier: "And what do you want me to do?" Lanius: "Our forces are better equipped to take objectives than hold them. I do not wish to defend this place if another option exists. Our opponents follow a strict chain of command, which is both a strength and weakness. I intend to use you to strike at that weakness. Find the enemy commander, this General Oliver. Kill him or his resolve. Do this, and his cowards will retreat, leaving the dam to us." (Lanius' dialogue)
↑Fallout: New Vegas Official Game Guide Collector's Edition p.457: "Equality By law, the NCR prohibits persecution and discrimination on the basis of gender, ethnicity, sexuality, or religious belief (so long as said religion does not advocate violence). Legal protection of Ghouls and other mutants was added in 2205, though enforcement of these rights has been spotty. For the most part, the NCR's practices live up to its ideals, but there has been some retrenchment since the death of President Tandi. Aaron Kimball's popularity was amplified by a reactionary undercurrent, especially among males, calling out a need for a "strong man" to lead the NCR forward. In the years since Kimball took office, male military officers have been promoted disproportionately to females, and discourse arguing the differences between males and females has reappeared." (Behind the Bright Lights & Big City)
↑The Courier: "Medical texts? Aren't you a doctor?" Markland:"I'm an Army field medic. I can treat bullet wounds, shrapnel, trenchfoot, no problem. But this - the kids and the psychological trauma and all the rest - is out of my league." (Markland's dialogue)
↑The Courier: "Why are you "sort of" the doctor?" Hannigan: "I was an NCR medic for six months, so I'm not exactly a "doctor." Still, it's more medical training that any of the other guys here. It also gives me an excuse to stay out of any raiding parties. The gang can't lose its only doctor now, can it?" (Hannigan's dialogue)
↑The Courier: "Tell me about yourself." Alex Richards: "I used to be a doctor back in California, but a few years back I got suckered into doing military work because it was my "patriotic duty." Back then, I, like many idealistic men before me, thought it was a great idea and was excited about making the world a better place with the NCR. Now... I just want to get back home. I've had enough fighting and fixing up soldiers just to send them right back out to die to last a lifetime." (Alex Richard's dialogue)
↑Fallout Bible 5 6. About how many working or serviceable cars are there at the time of FO2? Obviously there must be more then one, since the guy in New Reno has a garage fully staffed, and most likely has a large supply of parts (I'm assuming that was what the warehouse building next to the garage was filled up with, you couldn't pick up anything off of them) Probably not too many, but I don't know the exact number. The real problem isn't fuel, it's mostly tires and other degradable parts that have gone to the dogs in the past 100 years. For every two hundred or so people, there might be one working vehicle, and even "the local clunker" wouldn't be up to factory specs. NCR is rumored to have a mechanized vehicle division outside of its farming vehicles, but the number of vehicles in the division is unknown."
↑ 41.041.1The Courier: "How did you get to be a colonel in the NCR?" Cassandra Moore: "I joined up at a young age. Was barely sixteen when I left home and volunteered to be in the military. Got a few strange looks at first, but those stopped when I got top marks across the board during training, and became an officer at seventeen. A few years went by, my squad helped take down gangs of raiders here and there, and one day an invitation to join the Rangers arrived. Those were the best years of my life. Doing something that truly matters, and having the freedom to handle it as you see fit. Then I got injured. Everyone was very supportive. I received a promotion to colonel and given greater responsibility, but my days as a Ranger were over." (Cassandra Moore's dialogue)
↑Why are the NCR troopers divided 50% - 50% into males and females? Wouldnt there be more males like in real life ? Joshua Sawyer: Regular NCR troopers are largely conscripted without bias to sex, so no. Rangers are volunteers, but most of them are volunteers from among the troopers. Josh Sawyer Formspring answers
↑[clarification needed]Rangers in Fallout: New Vegas.
↑ 44.044.1The Courier: "How'd a guy like you end up in the Army?" Poindexter: "It's a simple idea: the Army offers fiscal security and generous benefits at the cost of substantial personal risk - if you're on the front line. If you perform too poorly, they'll scrub you out. Perform too well, and you get sent to the front lines. All I have to do is ride that mediocrity gradient to a cushy, do-nothing job miles away from the war." (Poindexter's dialogue)
↑The Courier: "How does spreading false intel help anything?" Hanlon: "People back home don't listen. They don't care. Senators, Brahmin barons, folks who are just trying to make it from day to day. It's been so many years that people forget about it. Conscription brings in fresh troops to die here every month. Like it's routine. And even if we hold this dam, what then? Are we going to send the NCR's men and women to die here for another five years? Ten? Patrol the whole length of the Colorado for hundreds of miles? Holding this dam. It'll be the death of us." (Hanlon's dialogue)
↑You've said that the Rangers are volunteer, but does the NCR army conscript people? Joshua Sawyer: Yes. The majority of troopers on active duty are conscripted. Someone has asked why more troopers don't talk about being conscripted (I think only one of the Misfits does). Generally speaking, volunteers are more enthusiastic than people who are forced into something. Josh Sawyer Formspring answers
↑Joshua Sawyer on Formspring April 28, 2012: "You've said that the Rangers are volunteer, but does the NCR army conscript people?" "Yes. The majority of troopers on active duty are conscripted. Someone has asked why more troopers don't talk about being conscripted (I think only one of the Misfits does). Generally speaking, volunteers are more enthusiastic than people who are forced into something." "JESawyer 28 Apr 12"
↑Joshua Sawyer on Formspring March 23, 2012: "Why are the NCR troopers divided 50% - 50% into males and females? Wouldnt there be more males like in real life ?" "Regular NCR troopers are largely conscripted without bias to sex, so no. Rangers are volunteers, but most of them are volunteers from among the troopers." "JESawyer responded to irenebaumann 23 Mar 12"
↑Joshua Sawyer on Formspring April 12, 2012: "Okay lets call them "progessive" views,F2: intro of the Enclave as the bad guys,F3: Andale,FNV:2/4 human compainions are homosexuals,you yourself said you went 50/50 when portraying female to male ratio in NCR troops, and gimme a break only got 255 spaces" "What does the Enclave have to do with left-wing/progressive viewpoints? I doubt there are many right-wingers/conservatives who would look at the Enclave's views and behavior and say, "Yeah these dudes are great." The Enclave doesn't map to a contemporary political group. I also don't see the connection with Andale unless "not being a cannibal" is considered a progressive stance. Two F:NV human companions are, in fact, homosexual. Also all F:NV human companions are white. With four people, you're not going to get a distribution of attributes that perfectly maps to contemporary population demographics. Finally, what's the progressive viewpoint, that homosexuals exist? NCR troopers are roughly 50/50 male/female overall because the majority of them are conscripts. That's not progressive, just probability. JESawyer 27 Apr 12"
↑Joshua Sawyer on Formspring April 27, 2012: "33% of all IDF forces are female and 51% of all IDF officers are female. Like NCR's troopers, Israel's laws of conscription do not discriminate by sex. However, unlike NCR, Israel's mandatory service is only two years for women, three years for men, which means male conscripts stay in service longer. Israel also still bars women from certain positions, which means only men may occupy them as a career path. NCR troopers have no such restrictions. In contrast, most Rangers are male. Rangers are also volunteer-only. No one is conscripted into their ranks. NCR is the most advanced state of large size in the American southwest. Unlike Caesar's Legion, procreation and infant/child mortality were never problems for NCR. This is also why (despite the broadly misogynistic talk of ordinary legionaries), Caesar essentially forces all women into slavery, breeding, or both. Each of these governments populates its military forces according the principles of the state. NCR is egalitarian in conscription (barring corruption/evasion, though that isn't biased along lines of sex) and leaves elite positions open only to volunteers. Caesar is concerned only with efficiency; all individuals are bent toward the will of the state. The result is all-male slave army that is continually being replenished by forced breeding. JESawyer responded to MikeGolf 27 Apr 12"
↑The Courier: "How long have you been a sharpshooter?" 10 of Spades: "Shit. Long as I can r-r-remember. Had a rifle in my hand since I was three, that's what my dad always says. Learned to shoot on our ranch. Way west of here. Same as the LT, he's a f-farm kid too." (10 of Spades' dialogue)
↑Fallout: New Vegas endings: "The Misfits' laziness caught up with them when the Legion attacked Camp Golf. Those who weren't killed in the attack attempted to flee, but were caught at Mojave Outpost, court-martialed, and hanged from the ranger monument."
↑The Courier: "I imagine the NCR doesn't deal with deserters kindly." Layla: "Yeah, if we see the NCR, they'll be waiting for us with a bullet to the brain pan. So what are we supposed to do, just run?" (Layla's dialogue)
↑Fallout: New Vegas endings: "Driven into a frenzy by their use of psycho, The Misfits inflicted heavy casualties on the Legion during the defense of Camp Golf. At first they were commended for their valor, but eventually, desperate for more of the chem, they turned on travelers in Outer Vegas. For their dishonorable conduct, the NCR court-martialed and executed them by firing squad."
↑The Courier: "400 caps is a less suspicious amount. You have enough trouble here as it is." Monroe: "[SUCCEEDED] That makes sense, and it's still more than these troopers see in a month." (Monroe's dialogue)
↑The Courier: "Why don't you just beat your prisoner senseless?" Carrie Boyd: "I like the way you think. Have I said that yet? Problem is that the NCR frowns on using that sort of tactic. There are some restrictions still in place from President Tandi's administration. But here's my favorite thing about you - you're not in the NCR. Plus, for all this guy knows, you're completely insane. That's a winning combination." (Carrie Boyd's dialogue)
↑Carrie Boyd: "You did well. I don't know how you did it without putting a scratch on him, and I'm a little disappointed personally, but it saved the NCR some face. And it could save us more than that when all is said and done. I'm gonna talk to some people when we're through here. This is about double the standard fee we'd give a "consultant," but from what I saw, you're more of an artist. So think of this as your commission." (Carrie Boyd's dialogue)
↑Camp Golf, the Mojave Outpost, and other outposts have satellite dishes set up for communication using surviving satellites in orbit.
↑The Courier: "Tell me about the Gun Runners." Alexander: "The Gun Runners have been putting rapid-fire death-dealing in the hands of anyone who needed to defend himself for over a century. We're the NCR's #1 supplier of weapons and ammunition. You might call us an unofficial branch of the army." (Alexander's dialogue)
↑The Courier: "A gun nut like you must have some weapons stashed around here." Alexander: "[FAILED] Do I look like a fucking arms caravan to you? Do you think the Gun Runners keep the NCR military supplied by carrying weapons and ammo from the Boneyard out here by the armload? Get a clue. We have caravans. We deal in bulk." (Alexander's dialogue)
↑The Courier: "Give them a deal on the price, you'll have the upper hand in future, more important negotiations." Blake: "[SUCCEEDED] Well, the Far Go Traders have been trying to edge us out on the new armor contract for the troops. This could swing things in our favor. All right, let McCarran know they should expect the first shipment in a week or so." (Blake's dialogue)