Lorenzo's artifact adds telekinesis to the gamma gun, allowing it to push targets away. In most cases, barring a very weak enemy, this will result in staggering the enemy, which can keep a target locked in place and stunned.
However, if the target is in ragdoll state, for instance, if the target has been knocked down by the third tier Pain Train perk, the game will treat the target as a physics object and the Sole Survivor can chain ragdoll the target, even sending it airborne and potentially some distance away. This can either kill the enemy outright via damage from the weapon and from being knocked around, or remove the enemy from the fight for a while by throwing them out of the combat area, off a cliff or into an out of the way position, etc. There appears to be a small, invisible cooldown before a target can be ragdolled again via Pain Train, and charging at enemies can run the player characterlow on Action Points. In this case, the stagger-locking from the weapon's normal usage can be used to buy time until the enemy can be ragdolled again. This may be a bug, since targets will not be flung so wildly by the weapon's effects, unless they are in ragdoll state, even during stand-up or stagger animations.
The artifact mod can be removed from its initial weapon and attached to another gamma gun, including legendary gamma guns to add even more effects, without losing the artifact's original functionality.