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Humans will prevail.— President Dick Richardson, Fallout 2

Humans (Homo sapiens) are the dominant species of Earth. In the post–apocalyptic age, "human" is more specifically used to denote those that have been more-or-less unaffected by radiation as opposed to mutants like ghouls and super mutants, even though said mutant types originate from humans. Non–mutated humans are sometimes called normals, smoothskins, or bleeders by their mutant counterparts.

Four distinguishable, common ethnic groups are present in post-War America: African, Asian, Caucasian, and Hispanic.


Despite the existence of various mutations, humans are still the most common humanoid creatures on Earth. Post-nuclear humans, as a direct result of the radiation and exposition to the F.E.V. of the West Tek Research Facility (that mutated after the Great War due to radiation),[1] and some other biochemical agents released into the environment during and after the Great War, exhibit more diversity, primarily in genetic structure. The aforementioned factors have resulted in an increased rate of mutations in humans, although very few of these result in phenotypical changes. Most of these changes are non-lethal, non-damaging variations in the human DNA that simply increase the gene pool variety. Also, humans with minor mutations, like additional toes, skin lesions due to TDC infection, permanent red eyes, permanent varicose veins, or complete lack of hair are still considered to be normal humans.

Pure and prime humansEdit

"Pure" humans, or "prime normals" are theoretically humans that have not been mutated unnaturally by radiation or other post-War pollutants. They can be said to be original humans, no different than those from before the War. However, because of the widespread and pervasive fallout in the wasteland, these represent a very small minority of all sentient species on Earth. They exist only in isolated factions, such as in remote areas untouched by radiation, an example being underground vaults. Some vaults, opening after the radiation has faded, can produce tribes which can be said to be pure, such as the Boomers. Pure humans also include those cryogenically frozen before the war, such as the scientists of Boulder Dome.

All of these variations have been uniquely interpreted by the Enclave leadership as the basis for claiming that the humans living outside the Enclave and isolated vaults are no longer pure; rather, that they are, in fact, "near-humans" that pose a threat to the supposedly "pure" humanity living in the aforementioned locations. This theory, based in the claims of Dick Richardson and John Henry Eden is relatively vague in fact: debate remains whether these genetic variations are considerable enough to substantiate a new subspecies of human, or even if the differences exist at all. In a possible ending of Fallout 3, however, it is shown that all non-Enclave persons are eradicated, giving credit to the theory. It is also claimed by the super mutants that humans not exposed to radiation (those located in vaults) will transform into superior mutants when exposed to FEV, as opposed to wasteland humans, also lending credence to the aforementioned theory.


Minor deviationsEdit

These mutants have identical or near-identical phenotypes compared to normal humans, and most of their differences are distinctly positive, if still unnatural, evolutions.

  • Gametitle-FOT Beastlords, humans who developed an ability to exert psychic control over animals.
  • Cyborgs, humans who have been modified with robotic components to gain enhanced abilities.
  • Dwarves, whose only difference from normal humans is their reduced stature.
  • Psykers, humans who possess a certain psychic power.
  • Slags, humans whose physiology adapted to prolonged seclusion underground, possessing, for example, perfect dark-light vision but their eyes are sensitive to bright light.[2][3]
  • Radiation immune humans, an adaptation of the human species from several centuries worth of radiation exposure. Most radiation immune humans likely do not realize they are immune to ionization (no radiation sickness or ghoulification) as they had been taught by others to avoid it at all costs, but those that have sometimes ascribe it to a divine blessing.[4] Others are scientifically studied[5] in order to cure or vaccinate against certain environmental conditions. Alongside the radiation immune humans, radiation-resistant humans were born, such as Lumpy of Gecko.

Major deviationsEdit

These forms of mutants are more drastically different both physically and in usual personality from normal humans compared to the above, lesser deviations. They are often thought of and treated as altogether separate species from humanity by some.

  • Ghouls, humans that have been subjected to heavy radiation poisoning which is lethal in most cases, but for these dubiously "lucky" individuals have instead given them a degenerated, zombie-like appearance as well as indefinite lifespans. They are sterile and immune to the lethal effects of radiation but not to its degenerative effects. "Normal" ghouls retain more–or–less standard human personalities and cognitive abilities, while feral ghouls, who do not, are considered sub-humans and covered below.
    • Gametitle-VB Born ghouls, ghouls born of human parents due to experiments by Dr. Sebastian at the Reservation, not created through radiation. They are stronger and faster than regular ghouls.
  • Super mutants, former humans subjected to forced evolution via FEV-II from the Mariposa Military Base in California. They are much taller, bulkier, and more muscular than humans, have mostly green, gray, or yellowish skin, are immune to disease and radiation, and are gifted with superhuman strength and endurance. Although they are completely sterile, the rapid regeneration of their cells caused by FEV makes them virtually biologically immortal (but not immune to death from injury). The more previous radiation exposure a human has sustained, the more of a chance their transformation into a super mutant has to either fail, killing them, or work less–than–optimally, making them more likely to be brutal and less intelligent. Most super mutants have turned out short of the Master's ideal due to this, and only a handful of them possess the intelligence to match their strength and make them truly superior to normal humans.
    • Nightkin, super mutants that have become blue-ish in coloration and developed further eccentricity, including schizophrenia, from overuse of Stealth Boys.
  • Gametitle-TAR Numen, Though usually mistaken for ghouls, the Numen are a distinct form of mutant created through FEV. The main distinctions between the two are the continued presence of the virus in their bodies, similar to super mutants, and the seeming compatibility with plant life. Harold is the only known person to have undergone the mutations, though the existence of numerous more Numen is alluded to.
  • Film Two-headed humans, people mutated by radiation to have two heads. Despite this, they appear functionally normal.


These former humans have suffered a degree of mutation that has turned them into monsters both appearance-wise and behaviorally, with only occasional individual exceptions.

  • Gametitle-FO3 MZ Abominations, creatures resulting from alien experimentation on abducted humans. They have lost all sexual characteristics and higher brain functions. They are hostile to all other life forms, including their creators.
  • Vault 87 super mutants, creatures created by the Evolutionary Experimentation Program in Vault 87 in the Capital Wasteland; they are a separate subspecies from the aforementioned and more humanity–retaining Mariposa mutants, but both share the general terminology of "super mutant" due to physical similarity. Like their counterparts, these mutants have yellowish skin and large, muscular bodies, but are also more innately aggressive, unintelligent, and brutish. Also, their facial expression is permanently set in a sneer. Unlike Mariposa super mutants, their mutation is continuous and unremitting, and they continue to "evolve" and grow up slowly over time through stages, up to the nine-meter super mutant behemoths. Only two of them by the time in 2277, Fawkes and Uncle Leo, are known to have kept their human sanity and intelligence.
  • Institute super mutants, beings created by the Institute's own FEV program and released into the Commonwealth. While just as aggressive as the Vault 87 strain, they are capable of some intelligence, as they forge armor for themselves and gather in large groups to raid human settlements. While similar to the West Coast and Vault 87 breeds, the Brotherhood of Steel note they are "quite different" from those found in the Capital Wasteland, including differences in anatomy. There are quite a large number of them in 2287, such as Strong, and Erickson in the Far Harbor add-on. These two are known to have kept their human sanity and intelligence. Brian Virgil is another notable mutant, however, he became a mutant of his own accord, and the change can be reverted depending on the actions of the Sole Survivor.
  • Feral ghouls are ghouls whose physical deterioration has also extended to their neurological systems, causing them to lose their ability to reason and become hostile towards all non-ghouls. Their body is also more skeletal than normal ghouls and their eyes are completely white.
    • Glowing ones, ghouls who have absorbed an unusually high amount of radiation into their bloodstream and muscle tissue without their neurological systems filtering these particles from the blood and tissue, becoming a luminescent yellow-green ghoul, living conduits of radiation, which can even persist for a short time after death. Generally mindless and thus considered a subtype to feral ghouls, at least two "normal" ghouls with the features of glowing ones have been encountered, Jason Bright and Oswald the Outrageous.
  • Gametitle-FNV LR Marked men, former soldiers that were mutated by the detonation of underground ICBMs and skinned by the storms of the Divide. This horrific process turned them into a unique form of feral ghoul, kept alive only by the area's background radiation. Despite this, they seem to retain some level of intelligence, using weapons, crafting armor, and building houses. They are hostile towards all non-marked men.
  • Gametitle-FNV DM Ghost people, humans twisted by constant, long–term exposure to the Cloud of the Sierra Madre, which would normally have killed them, but has been filtered through their hazmat suits. The resulting vicious creatures boast heightened perception, agility, extreme longevity, fire immunity, virtual immortality, and death with limb amputation caused by a universal mutation from which everything is connected. The suits of the ghost people have become permanently bonded to their bodies, and it is impossible to see what they look like on the inside, but it is heavily implied that their mutations are among the most horrific ever witnessed in the Fallout universe.
  • Gametitle-FNV OWB Lobotomites, humans who were surgically-altered with the Big MT medical experiments which turned them into mindless savages. Their brains have been replaced with advanced Tesla coils, allowing them to perform simple tasks such as using doors, walking, fighting hand-to-hand, and using firearms. Their head cannot be crippled, they have a better chem addiction resistance, and receive less shock from bodily damage, but they possess only rudimentary speech (the only noises that they make are short grunts, such as "stop you" or "kill") and lack a normal conscience. It also appears that their surgery allowed them to have a relatively long life, since what is presumably the first lobotomite is still alive in 2281.
    • The Courier is the only known lobotomite to have retained their sanity and intelligence after being transformed. This is due to the fact that their brain was still functioning after the procedure, albeit detached from the main body.
  • Spore carriers, humans who have entered the terminal stage of Beauveria Mordicana infection. Once the entomopathogenic fungus has fully colonized a host body, the host technically dies, but the body continues to move by means of the fungal colonies within it. In this manner the fungus moves amongst more of its prey, occasionally spraying spores in a radius around the host body, infecting all who come near it.
  • Gametitle-FO3 TP Trogs, humans who have entered the terminal stage of the Troglodyte Degeneration Contagion. They are completely mindless monsters that dwell in darkness and fear the light.
  • Gametitle-FO3 PL Swampfolk, humans who have developed extreme deformities as a result of combined New Plague infection, inbreeding, and ionizing radiation.
  • Centaurs, a mix of humans, dogs, cats, and other types of animals created by the Master through FEV.
  • Scorched, humans who have been infested with the Scorched Plague, which has erased their individual consciousnesses and linked them to a primitive hive mind.
  • Mole miners, humans that mutated within their miner suits leading to shorter stature and aggression towards humans, with exceptions such as Purveyor Murmrgh.
  • Wendigos, humans that mutated into violent cannibalistic monsters.
  • Grafton monsters, humans that were test subjects during FEV experimentation and have transformed into large, gray creatures with non-distinct heads.
  • Gametitle-VB Mutant cannibals, humans mutated by the combination of industrial waste and radiation unique to the Grand Canyon, turning them into monstrous cannibals. They stand around 5 feet tall, sporting dark brown skin, large talon-like fingers, and bulging skulls.
  • Gametitle-VB Gehennas, humans that were mutated by the radioactive waste and raging fires that burn in Burham Springs. Around the same height as the average person, these creatures echo their past humanity only in the vaguely humanoid form they still possess. Made entirely of a black tar-like substance and wreathed in flames, Gehennas will attack all but their own kind with fire and noxious gasses.
    • Gametitle-VB Molechs, gehennas that have been further mutated by radiation. Resembling humans even less, molechs have lost their arms and have a head and neck resembling that of a large serpent. Furthermore, green crystalline growths have sprouted all across the creatures' bodies, which can spray toxic bile as a means of offense.
  • Gametitle-TAR Tickers, humans that have mutated and bloated due to an unknown cause.

Gameplay relevanceEdit

In Fallout, Fallout 2, Fallout 3, Fallout: New Vegas, Fallout 4, and Fallout 76, the player can only embody a human character. Fallout Tactics allowed the player to control other races (see Fallout Tactics race), even though the player could only start as a human and Fallout: Brotherhood of Steel is the only Fallout game allowing players to choose a ghoul as the principal player character.

Fallout, Fallout 2 and Fallout: TacticsEdit

In the SPECIAL character system, humans have 40 Character Points to divide between their primary statistics.

Fallout 3, Fallout: New Vegas and Fallout 4Edit

Human non-player characters suffer extra damage from headshots both in V.A.T.S. and in free-fire mode. They prioritize their targets according to the weapons they carry. Any grenades the non-player characters carry can be detonated with a well-placed shot.

Shooting the enemy's weapons is a very effective way of disarming humanoids, as the weapons they carry are often of inferior quality requiring only a few shots, and their hand-to-hand damage is negligible. This does not apply to enemies using Unarmed weapons.

Fallout 76Edit

All the human residents of Appalachia were killed or had left the region before 2102; the only humans that were alive were the residents from Vault 76, including the player character. Since the Wastelanders update, living humans from outside Appalachia have returned to the region.

Fallout: The Board GameEdit

Human players will start with either a weapon or a piece of armor at the beginning of the game. Humans do not gain any bonus or advantage during gameplay. Human enemies in the game are weakest to leg attacks and body attacks, and almost always drop loot.

Project V13Edit

PV13The following is based on pre-release information for the canceled online game codenamed Project V13 and is not considered canon.

Humans were supposed to appear in the now canceled Fallout MMO Project V13.

PV13End of information based on pre-release information for the canceled online game codenamed Project V13.



  1. The Vault Dweller:"{188}{}{Why am I a prime human ?}"
    Lieutenant: "{194}{LIEUT30}{The FEV was mutated by the war radiation. Those living in this desolate wasteland have been exposed to this mutant FEV, essentially inoculating them from the full effects.}"
    The Vault Dweller: "{195}{}{So?}"
    Lieutenant: "{197}{LIEUT31}{So, you're from a Vault and have limited exposure to this mutated virus. The original FEV in the Vats should work quite well on you.}"
  2. The Chosen One: "{177}{}{Why don’t you send one of your own people to deliver the message?}"
    Vegeir: "{194}{}{Since the Sealing, we, as a people, have changed. Few can bear to be on the surface because they are not used to having a black sea of nothingness above them. The sensation of falling upward is so great for them that they lie frozen, clutching the ground. But that is not the main reason. All of us cannot stand the bright light of that which you call the sun; living underground for so long has made our eyes too sensitive to light. We cannot travel far from the safety of our homes beneath the ground.}"
  3. Slag guard's character description: "{150}{}{Besides the pale skin and enlarged pupils, he looks to be an ordinary person.}"
  4. Sole Survivor: "I mean, it's his choice, right? Who are we to stop him?"
    Ware: "That's easy to say, but... Look, me and Devin, we weren't born with Atom's blessing like everyone else around here. Rads, they hurt us."
    (Zealot Ware's dialogue)
  5. Haven terminal entries; Cure Research
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