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Humans will prevail.— President Dick Richardson, Fallout 2

Humans (Homo sapiens) are the dominant species of Earth. In the post–apocalyptic age, "human" is more specifically used to denote those that have been more-or-less unaffected by radiation as opposed to mutants like ghouls and super mutants, even though said mutant types originate from humans. Non–mutated humans are sometimes called normals, smoothskins or bleeders by their mutant counterparts.

Four distinguishable, common ethnic groups are present in post-War America: African, Asian, Caucasian and Hispanic.


Despite the existence of various mutations, humans are still the most common humanoid creatures on Earth. Post-nuclear humans, as a direct result of the radiation and exposition to the F.E.V. of the West Tek Research Facility (that mutated after the Great War due to radiation),[1] and some other biochemical agents released into the environment during and after the Great War, exhibit more diversity, primarily in genetic structure. The aforementioned factors have resulted in an increased rate of mutations in humans, although very few of these result in phenotypical changes. Most of these changes are non-lethal, non-damaging variations in the human DNA that simply increase the gene pool variety. Also, humans with minor mutations, like additional toes, skin lesions due to TDC infection, permanent red eyes, permanent varicose veins or complete lack of hair, are still considered to be normal humans.

Pure and prime humansEdit

"Pure" humans, or "prime normals" are theoretically humans which have not been mutated unnaturally by radiation or other post-War pollutants. They can be said to be original humans, no different than those from before the War. However, because of the widespread and pervasive fallout in the wasteland, these represent a very small minority of all sentient species on Earth. They exist only in isolated factions, such as in remote areas untouched by radiation, an example being underground vaults. Some vaults, opening after the radiation has faded, can produce tribes which can be said to be pure, such as the Boomers.

All of these variations have been uniquely interpreted by the Enclave leadership as basis for claiming that the humans living outside the Enclave and isolated vaults are no longer pure; rather, that they are, in fact, "near-humans" that pose a threat to the supposedly "pure" humanity living in the aforementioned locations. This theory, based in the claims of Dick Richardson and John Henry Eden is relatively vague in fact: debate remains whether these genetic variations are considerable enough to substantiate a new subspecies of human, or even if the differences exist at all. In a possible ending of Fallout 3, however, it is shown that all non-Enclave persons are eradicated, giving credit to the theory. It is also claimed by the super mutants that humans not exposed to radiation (those located in vaults) will transform into superior mutants when exposed to FEV, as opposed to wasteland humans, also lending credence to the aforementioned theory.

Likewise, humans are the only race to have been seen reverting to a primitive age. The most notable example of this are tribals that have developed their own culture; having distinct beliefs and superstitions, religious rituals, customs and even their own unique languages in some cases. They also often bear tattoos as one of their traditions, commonly practiced to implicate an important, symbolic meaning to the tribe or the human.


Minor deviationsEdit

These mutants have identical or near-identical phenotypes compared to normal humans, and most of their differences are distinctly positive, if still unnatural, evolutions.

  • Beastlords, humans who developed an ability to exert psychic control over animals.
  • Cyborgs, humans who have been modified with robotic components to gain enhanced abilities.
  • Dwarves, whose only difference from normal humans is their reduced stature.
  • Human psyker, humans who possess a certain paranormal power.
  • Slags, humans whose physiology adapted to prolonged seclusion underground, possessing for example perfect dark-light vision but their eyes are sensitive to bright light.
  • Radiation immune humans, an adaptation of the human species from several centuries worth of radiation exposure. Most radiation immune humans likely do not realize they are immune to ionization (no radiation sickness or ghoulification) as they've been taught by others to avoid it at all costs, but those that have sometimes ascribe it to a divine blessing.[2] Others are scientifically studied[3] in order to cure or vaccinate against certain environmental conditions.

Major deviationsEdit

These forms of mutant are more drastically different both physically and in usual personality from normal humans compared to the above, lesser deviations. They are often thought of and treated as altogether separate species from humanity by some.

  • Ghouls, humans that have been subjected to heavy radiation poisoning which is lethal in most cases, but for these dubiously "lucky" individuals has instead given them a degenerated, zombie–like appearance as well as indefinite lifespans. They are sterile and immune to the lethal effects of radiation but not to its degenerative effects. "Normal" ghouls retain more–or–less standard human personalities and cognitive abilities, while feral ghouls, who do not, are considered sub–humans and covered below.
  • Mariposa super mutants, former humans subjected to forced evolution via FEV-II from the Mariposa Military Base in California. They are much taller, bulkier and more muscular than humans, have mostly green, gray, or yellowish skin, are immune to disease and radiation, and are gifted with superhuman strength and endurance. Although they are completely sterile, the rapid regeneration of their cells caused by FEV makes them virtually biologically immortal (but not immune to death from injury). The more previous radiation exposure a human has sustained, the more of a chance their transformation into a super mutant has to either fail, killing them, or work less–than–optimally, making them more likely to be brutal and less intelligent. Most super mutants have turned out short of the Master's ideal due to this, and only a handful of them possess intelligence to match their strength and make them truly superior to normal humans.
    • Nightkin, super mutants that have become blue-ish in coloration and developed further eccentricity, including schizophrenia, from overuse of Stealth Boys.


These former humans have suffered a degree of mutation that has turned them into monsters both appearance–wise and behaviorally, with only occasional individual exceptions.

  • Gametitle-FO3 MZ Abominations are the result of alien experiments on abducted humans. They have lost all sexual characteristics and higher brain functions. They are hostile to all other life forms, including their creators.
  • Vault 87 super mutants, creatures created by the Evolutionary Experimentation Program in Vault 87 in the Capital Wasteland; they are a separate subspecies from the aforementioned and more humanity–retaining Mariposa mutants, but both share the general terminology of "super mutant" due to physical similarity. Like their counterparts, these mutants have yellowish skin and large, muscular bodies, but are also more innately aggressive, unintelligent and brutish. Also, their facial expression is permanently set in a sneer. Unlike Mariposa super mutants, their mutation is continuous and unremitting, and they continue to "evolve" and grow up slowly over time through stages, up to the nine–meter super mutant behemoths. Only two of them by the time in 2277, Fawkes and Uncle Leo, are known to have kept their human sanity and intelligence.
  • Institute super mutants, beings created by the Institute's own FEV program and released into the Commonwealth. While just as aggressive as the Vault 87 strain, they are capable of some intelligence, as they forge armor for themselves and gather in large groups to raid human settlements. While similar to the West Coast and Vault 87 breeds, the Brotherhood of Steel note they are "quite different" from those found in the Capital Wasteland, including differences in anatomy. There are quite a large number of them in 2287, such as Strong, and Erickson in the Far Harbor add-on. These two are known to have kept their human sanity and intelligence. Brian Virgil is another notable mutant, however he became a mutant of his own accord, and the change can be reverted depending on the actions of the Sole Survivor.
  • Feral ghouls are ghouls whose physical deterioration has also extended to their neurological systems, causing them to lose their ability to reason and become hostile towards all non-ghouls. Their body is also more skeletal than normal ghouls and their eyes are completely white.
    • Glowing ones, ghouls who have absorbed an unusually high amount of radiation into their bloodstream and muscle tissue without their neurological systems filtering these particles from the blood and tissue, becoming a luminescent yellow-green ghoul, living conduits of radiation, which can even persist for a short time after death. Generally mindless and thus considered a sub–type to feral ghouls, at least two "normal" ghouls with the features of glowing ones, Jason Bright and Oswald the Outrageous have been encountered.
  • Gametitle-FNV LR Marked men, beings similar to ghouls created when the violent storms of the Divide skinned its NCR and Caesar's Legion occupants alive while the intense radiation caused a unique variant of ghoulification. This horrific process kept them alive and in intense pain from their wounds, which would have killed even "ordinary" ghouls. They are kept alive only by the radiation of the Divide, which now heals their warped bodies, and are hostile towards all non-marked men.
  • Gametitle-FNV DM Ghost people, humans twisted by constant, long–term exposure to the Cloud of the Sierra Madre, which would normally have killed them, but has been filtered through their hazmat suits. The resulting vicious creatures boast heightened perception, agility, extreme longevity, fire immunity, virtual immortality and death with limb amputation caused by a universal mutation from which everything is connected. The suits of the ghost people have become permanently bonded to their bodies, and it is impossible to see what they look like on the inside, but it is heavily implied that their mutations are among the most horrific ever witnessed in the Fallout universe.
  • Gametitle-FNV OWB Lobotomites, humans who were surgically-altered with the Big MT medical experiments which turned them into mindless savages. Their brains have been replaced with advanced Tesla coils, allowing them to perform simple tasks such as using doors, walking, fighting hand-to-hand, and using firearms. Their head cannot be crippled, and they have a better chem addiction resistance and receive less shock from bodily damage, but they are unable to talk (the only noises that they make are short grunts, such as "stop you" or "kill") or have a normal conscience. It also appears that the Tesla coils allow them to have a relatively long life, since a lobotomite called Test Subject 1, probably the first lobotomite created in Big MT, is still alive in 2281.
  • Robobrains (military alphanumeric serial numbers RB-3928) are multi-purpose robots. Their memories and programs are stored inside an organic or partially organic brain, contained in a domed shell atop their chassis. They are considered intuitively superior to most robots, as human brains allow them a wider range of responses and functions. Their hands can operate most tools and weapons usable by humans.
  • Spore carriers, humans who have entered the terminal stage of Beauveria Mordicana infection. Once the entomopathogenic fungus has fully colonized a host body, the host technically dies, but the body continues to move by means of the fungal colonies within it. In this manner the fungus moves amongst more of its prey, occasionally spraying spores in a radius around the host body, infecting all who come near it.
  • Gametitle-FO3 TP Trogs, humans who have entered the terminal stage of the Troglodyte Degeneration Contagion. They are completely mindless monsters that dwell in darkness and fear the light.
  • Gametitle-FO3 PL Swampfolk, humans who have developed extreme deformities as a result of combined New Plague infection, inbreeding and ionizing radiation.
  • Centaurs, a mix of humans, dogs, cats and other types of animals created by the Master.
  • Scorched, humans who have been infested with the Scorched Plague, which has erased their individual consciousnesses and linked them to a primitive hive mind.
  • Mole miners, humans that mutated within their miner suits leading to shorter stature and aggression in most cases, with exceptions such as Purveyor Murmrgh.
  • Wendigos, humans that mutated into violent cannibalistic monsters.
  • Grafton monsters, humans that were test subjects during FEV experimentation and have transformed into large, gray creatures with non-distinct heads.

Gameplay relevanceEdit

In Fallout, Fallout 2, Fallout 3, Fallout 4,Fallout: New Vegas and Fallout 76 the player can only embody a human character. Fallout Tactics allowed the player to control other races (see Fallout Tactics races), even though the player could only start as a human and Fallout: Brotherhood of Steel is the only Fallout game allowing players to choose a ghoul as the principal player character.

Fallout, Fallout 2 and Fallout: TacticsEdit

In the SPECIAL character system, humans have 40 Character Points to divide between their primary statistics.

Fallout 3, Fallout: New Vegas and Fallout 4Edit

Human non-player characters suffer extra damage from headshots both in V.A.T.S. and in free-fire mode. They prioritize their targets according to the weapons they carry. Any grenades the non-player characters carry can be detonated with a well-placed shot.

Shooting the enemy's weapons is a very effective way of disarming humanoids, as the weapons they carry are often of inferior quality requiring only a few shots, and their hand-to-hand damage is negligible. This does not apply to enemies using Unarmed weapons.

Fallout 76Edit

All the human residents of Appalachia are dead; the only humans that are alive are the residents from Vault 76, including the player character. Beginning with the Wastelanders update to the game, the first living human non-player characters will be added to the game.

Fallout: The Board GameEdit

Human players will start with either a weapon or a piece of armor at the beginning of the game. Humans do not gain any bonus or advantage during gameplay. Human enemies in the game are weakest to leg attacks and body attacks, and almost always drop loot.

Project V13Edit

PV13The following is based on pre-release information for the canceled online game codenamed Project V13 and is not considered canon.

Humans were supposed to appear in the now canceled Fallout MMO Project V13.



  1. LT.MSG, line 194
  2. Sole Survivor: "I mean, it's his choice, right? Who are we to stop him?"
    Ware: "That's easy to say, but... Look, me and Devin, we weren't born with Atom's blessing like everyone else around here. Rads, they hurt us."
    (DLC03CoA ZealotWare.txt)
  3. Haven terminal entries#Cure Research
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