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|For a list of appearances by game, see China in Fallout games.|
China, officially the People's Republic of China, was a pre-War communist state in eastern Asia. China grew rapidly after World War II, and by the 21st century became a global superpower, rivaling the United States and the Soviet Union in power and wealth. Although severely affected by the economic crisis and the Resource Wars, China was able to compete with the United States for control of the last remaining resources on Earth and wage an eleven year-long war to conquer Alaska and later defend its homeland. Together with the United States and the rest of the world, China ceased to exist in 2077, as the nuclear holocaust swept the globe and nearly destroyed all human civilization. There are no sources that verify the fate of survivors in Chinese territories.
During the 20th and 21st centuries, China and the Soviet Union competed with the United States. The space race was one particularly important field of competition in the 20th century. After the United States claimed that Captain Carl Bell was the first human in space in 1961, both the Soviet Union and China protested the claim. The United States never retracted its statement.
However, hostilities would not escalate until a century later, as the global energy and resource crisis grew more and more severe. Heavily reliant on fossil fuels, the People's Republic of China was hit particularly hard.[Non-game 1] In 2060, the Middle East oil fields ran dry, triggering the collapse of the European Commonwealth and the Middle East oil powers.[Non-game 1] Traffic on the streets worldwide ground to a halt as fuel became too precious to waste on automobiles. Alternatives were explored, with limited success.[Non-game 2] Two years later, Chinese operatives would be found across Canada and the United States, running interference and gathering intel that could be used to balance the scales. To counter communist interference, the Third Red Scare was manufactured. As the situation across the United States worsened, both as a result of the deteriorating economy and the New Plague continuing to wreak havoc despite quarantine measures,[Non-game 3] the federal government used the increasing national paranoia to try and control the situation, by discouraging assemblies, fueling anti-communist sentiment, and encouraging reporting subversive elements. The Vigilant Citizen's Hotline was even established to allow citizens to report neighbors to the government for any behavior that could be construed as in support of communism.
To stave off collapse on the domestic front, China launched campaigns to annex neighboring countries and provide resources for the starved economy.[Non-game 4] While successful, the strategy was only a temporary solution to a much larger problem: Dependency on fossil fuels. The People's Republic found itself on the border of collapse in the spring of 2066. Trade talks with the United States revealed it to be unwilling to export its own reserves of crude oil. Aggressive negotiations resulted in the talks breaking down completely. [Non-game 5] According to the Sierra Depot GNN transcript, on July 24, the U.S. president declared that the last known supply of petroleum would be used exclusively by the U.S. and that America would not sell or trade any oil to foreign parties; however, the transcript is a generally unreliable source. As if to insult the communist state further, the United States government revealed the first cold fusion power cell to the public.[Non-game 6]
The situation was dire. Although China was able to tap a large deep-sea deposit of oil below the Pacific, it was unable to make use of it due to sabotage. American interference was suspected.[Non-game 7] Pushed up against a wall, Chairman Cheng decided on an ambitious and extremely dangerous plan: Invasion of Alaska and seizure of its natural resources by force. Chinese troops swarmed the state, with the primary push focusing on the city of Anchorage, necessary to maintain a link with the Chinese mainland. The Anchorage Front Line became a true battleground.[Non-game 8]
The invasion inadvertently triggered the gradual annexation of Canada, as the United States forced it to grant the right of passage to American military forces.[Non-game 9] The deployment of the T-45 power armor helped prevent Chinese tanks and infantry from overrunning Alaska. The situation rapidly deteriorated into trench warfare as neither side was capable of breaking the stalemate and forcing peace terms on the enemy and the resource shortage precluded large offensive operations by Chinese motorized forces.[Non-game 10]
The conflict raged for over a decade. The United States focused its attention on Canada, liberally exploiting its natural resources while ignoring protests made by Ottawan citizens.[Non-game 11] Riots and protests eventually culminated in a sabotage attempt on an oil pipeline in 2072. The United States military used the incident as a pretext to invade Canada outright and begin annexation.[Non-game 12] Meanwhile, China attempted to destroy American resistance with aggressive use of biological weapons, leading the U.S. government to commission West Tek with the development of a universal cure on September 15, 2073.[Non-game 13] The economy of the People's Republic relied heavily on fossil fuels, including uranium fuel, China having mined the most uranium in the world as of 2077. Despite this, the supply did not meet the demand and was the impetus for the invasion of Alaska, as it teetered on the brink of collapse due to the resource crisis.[Non-game 14] 
War in China
Despite claims of fighting a defensive war, American infantry and mechanized divisions launched an invasion of the Chinese mainland in 2074. However, with its economy stretched to the breaking point by the war on three fronts, the U.S. was unable to overcome its foe. American units were bogged down on the Chinese mainland, putting a further drain on American resources and supply lines.[Non-game 15] By 2076, the war had raged for a decade with no end in sight. Both China and the United States teetered on the brink of collapse at this point. However, the U.S. gained an advantage to offset the problems and the introduction of the T-51 power armor in June helped to tip the scales in favor of the U.S. military. The next generation of power armor resolved problems existing in older generations of armor. Mechanized cavalry units outfitted with the T-51bs were sent to the Alaskan and Chinese fronts, carving a swath through Communist forces. The Chinese economy crumbled under the onslaught as supply lines from nations annexed by the Beijing regime started falling apart.[Non-game 4] The American regime did not fare any better. In August, food and energy riots start in urban centers across the United States. A state of emergency and martial law was eventually declared, with U.S. military forces being deployed on the domestic front to fight their own countrymen.[Non-game 16] The United States became, effectively, a military junta.[Non-game 17]
2077 brought even worse news for the Chinese communists. The Anchorage Reclamation ended with a decisive American victory on January 10, with Anchorage back under U.S. control and Chinese forces retreating across the front.[Non-game 18]
China was backed into a corner, as the United States could allocate its military resources to destroying resistance in mainland China. With the loss of Alaska, the disintegration of its supply lines, and a renewed American offensive on the Chinese front, spearheaded by the newest T-51b powered armor units, China could not defend itself.[Non-game 7] As if expecting immediate retaliation, the American elite retreated to their shelters, planning a contingency to maintain the war effort even if nuclear strikes occurred.[Non-game 19] Bases across the United States were sealed and troops redeployed to front line conflicts to maintain the American offensive with great difficulty.
The Great War
Nuclear weapons were launched on October 23, 2077. Vaults are sealed as the air raid sirens blare for the last time. Within two hours, both the United States and China ceased to exist as nations, their cities vaporized in nuclear fireballs.
Remnants of Chinese culture and individuals survive in the United States after the war. The Shi of San Francisco are descendants of the crew of a Chinese submarine that beached in the ruined city and are one of the most advanced organizations in the wasteland. On the opposite coast is the Chinese Remnant, the remains of the Chinese intelligence network in the United States, ghoulified and eking out an existence in a fortified safehouse within the ruins of Washington, D.C.
Artifacts of the Chinese infiltration are also commonly encountered in areas with a heavy infiltrator presence and as war trophies brought home by US servicemen; these include the People's Republic of America Radio, Type 93 Chinese assault rifles, Shanxi Type 17 Chinese pistols, and imperial officer jians.
The shortages caused by the resource crisis and ongoing war with the United States resulted in strict rationing being instituted, with lotteries being used in particularly difficult situations to issue rations to Chinese citizens without prejudice. In practice, these were routinely manipulated by the government to reward faithful service.
China was a single-party state, ruled by the Communist Party. The head of state is the Chairman (equivalent to the United States' president), with the last leader to hold this office being Chairman Cheng.
Like any sovereign state, China routinely maintained embassies in foreign nations. In spite of the war, the Chinese embassy in Washington D.C. remained open, with Xiu-Ling serving as the last ambassador to the United States.
The People's Liberation Army relied on its vast reserves of manpower and industrial capacity to maintain its edge, though unlike the United States, the focus was put on firepower rather than personal protection. Chinese soldiers were issued jumpsuits rather than hard combat armor, though the Type 93 assault rifles that were the workhorse of the army were significantly more powerful than standard American R91s. Key to the Chinese doctrine was tanks, used to support infantry operations during the invasion of Alaska. However, when they were countered by early power armor Americans deployed, China realized that it had no analog and rushed to create its own versions, focusing on stealth technology as a counter.[Non-game 20]
Beyond stealth, the Chinese had an extremely effective intelligence and security apparatus. Apart from concealing its research, Chinese operatives infiltrated mainland United States and set up an extensive covert network of spies and intelligence operatives. The largest of their spy networks were located in and around Washington, D.C., with strongholds throughout the region. China even managed to set up regular patrols by Chinese submarines, such as the SSN-37-1A.
Due to little success in creating a power armor of comparable performance,[Non-game 21] While their own version power armor was considered and saw some moderate development, Chinese researchers decided to focus their efforts elsewhere and managed to create practical active camouflage technology, commonly referred to as stealth technology. The development of Hei Gui stealth suits allowed for easy penetration of enemy lines. China's efforts continued apace and by 2075 was rumored to possess an entire fleet of stealth submarines, developed in the Shaanxi Province, nicknamed the "Ghost Fleet."
The United States had little success in their own stealth projects. Various reverse-engineering projects were undertaken. Big MT created stealth suits mark I and mark II based on technology from captured Chinese suits RobCo focused on replicating the modulating stealth field. Robert Mayflower's Stealth Boy 3001 was a portable, personal stealth device with a limited lifespan that could be used by anyone without the need for a full-body suit.
Chinese research into improving their stealth tech never ceased, and the Fujiniya Intelligence Base in Appalachia was on the cusp of a major upgrade in power efficiency for the stealth suit. The Great War interrupted the project, and it was eventually salvaged by Thomas Eckhart's Enclave to create Stealth Boy Mark IIIs.
Separate from the infiltrated agents of the People's Liberation Army, China also had a network of spies and communist sympathizers in mainland America, having infiltrated the local civil society to spy on it while smuggling imported Chinese weapons. Such cells could be found in Pre-War Pittsburgh, Old Olney and Point Lookout. In Appalachia, the secessionist militia known as the Free States was accused of being a communist movement by the US governement during the propaganda war between both groups.
Even in 2277, Irving Cheng was still sympathetic to the communist regime.
- In Fallout 2, the Sierra Depot GNN transcript names China's leader as President President Xin. Later games mention Chairman Cheng as the leader of China.
- In Fallout Shelter, vault dwellers will comment that they would like to visit the Great Wall of China, and believe it is still standing.[Non-canon 1]
- In Appalachia, plush teddy bear variants called imported Chinese pandas and Comrade Chubs can be found.
- In the Fallout 76 update Wild Appalachia, ancient Chinese beliefs such as that spirits of abused animals become demons, are mentioned in the Pioneer Scouts mammalogist exam.
- The Terracotta Army of Chinese emperor Qin Shih Huang is mentioned in the Pioneer Scout archeological exam in the Fallout 76 update Wild Appalachia.
China is mentioned in every Fallout game.
Behind the scenes
- In Fallout 2, the Shi-Huang-Ti (named after the first emperor of the Qin dynasty Qin Shi Huang) submarine was planned to play a bigger role in the game - armed with conventional missiles and hidden in the San Francisco Bay it could destroy the PMV Valdez heading to the Poseidon oil rig that was used as the headquarters of the Enclave.
- Chinese forces would also appear in some form in Black Isle Studios' canceled Fallout 3, code-named Van Buren, playing a part in the background story:
- When the Great War started, communist fifth-columnists rebelled against the federal government despite being hunted by the Unamerican Activities Force, and in the tech demo fifth columnists were the main enemies encountered.
- Shortly before the Great War started in 2077, a Chinese infiltration and sabotage team discovered the Hoover Dam secret genetics laboratory - Classified Sub-Level 1C - and tried to destroy Hoover Dam, so the genetic work could never be used against them. Some of the Chinese stealth soldiers made it into Sub-Level 1C, while others were planting bombs in the main generator rooms - Scum Pits. One of the bombs went off prematurely and alerted all of Hoover Dam, including the guards in S1C. Things become cloudy in the reports due to the chaos that ensued, but suffice it to say that the Chinese were defeated, the generators were heavily damaged, and S1C was compromised. A couple of Chinese stealth soldiers and four scientists were trapped in S1C after the hatch was sealed. The Prisoner could find the soldiers there and use the materials from their stealth armor to make his own armor.[Non-canon 2]
- Chinese Hei Gui units managed to steal Limit-115 samples during the Hoover raid, but they were killed in Denver in a crowded public area, breaking the vials with the virus, unleashing the New Plague on Denver.
- Similarly, the canceled Fallout Extreme would also feature China: Although the communists in China started the Great War, they couldn't finish it. Imperial remnants from places like Taiwan swiftly took the country back from the Reds, and crowned a new emperor of China. The new dynasty, however, did not like how America ended up in the Great War, and are building a massive missile to destroy the dangerous Brotherhood of Steel.
- Vault dwellers: "If you could visit one famous landmark in the outside world, what would it be?"
"The Great Wall of China. I bet it's still standing."
(Vault dweller conversations)
- Hei Gui armor as a possible part of the equipment is confirmed by one of Van Buren screenshots also, see Van Buren crafting.