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For detailed list of Chinese-related appearances, see China in Fallout games.
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We were winning, too. And then those damn Reds launched everything they had. We barely got our birds up.— President Dick Richardson, Fallout 2

China, officially the People's Republic of China, was a pre-War communist state in eastern Asia. China grew rapidly after World War II, and by the 21st century became a global superpower, rivaling the United States and the Soviet Union in power and wealth. Although severely affected by the economic crisis and the Resource Wars, China was able to compete with the United States for control of the last remaining resources on Earth and wage an eleven year-long war to conquer Alaska and later defend its homeland. Together with the United States and the rest of the world, China ceased to exist in 2077, as the nuclear holocaust swept the globe and nearly destroyed all human civilization. There are no reliable sources that would verify the fate of survivors in Chinese territories.


In 1927, the Chinese Civil War broke out between the Republic of China and a communist revolutionary movement. The conflict was briefly suspended in 1937 when the Second Sino-Japanese War began, carrying on into World War II and ending in 1945. In 1949, the Civil War ended with Mao Zedong and his communist revolutionaries victorious. On October 1st, the People's Republic of China was established. All remaining supporters of the Republic of China fled to the island of Formosa.

China and the Soviet Union competed with the United States after the Divergence, as the federal republic aggressively pursued its goals of becoming the hegemon of the world. The space race was one particularly important field of competition in the 20th century. After the United States claimed that Captain Carl Bell was the first human in space in 1961, both the Soviet Union and China protested the claim. The United States never retracted its statement.[1]

Resource WarsEdit

However, hostilities would not escalate until a century later, as the global energy and resource crisis grew more and more severe. Heavily reliant on fossil fuels, the People's Republic of China was hit particularly hard. In 2060, the Middle East oil fields ran dry, triggering the collapse of the European Commonwealth and the Middle East oil powers.[2] Traffic on the streets worldwide ground to a halt as fuel became too precious to waste on automobiles. Alternatives were explored, with limited success.[3] Two years later, Chinese operatives would be found across Canada and the United States, running interference and gathering intel that could be used to balance the scales.[4] To counter communist interference, the Third Red Scare was manufactured. As the situation across the United States worsened, both as a result of the deteriorating economy and the New Plague continuing to wreak havoc despite quarantine measures,[5] the federal government used the increasing national paranoia to try and control the situation, by discouraging assemblies, fueling anti-communist sentiment, and encouraging reporting subversive elements.[6] The Vigilant Citizen's Hotline was even established to allow hysterical citizens to report neighbors to the government for any behavior that could be construed as in support of communism.[7]

To stave off collapse on the domestic front, China launched campaigns to annex neighboring countries and provide resources for the starved economy.[8] While successful, the strategy was only a temporary solution to a much larger problem: Dependency on fossil fuels. The People's Republic found itself on the border of collapse in the spring of 2066. Trade talks with the United States revealed it to be unwilling to export its own reserves of crude oil. Aggressive negotiations resulted in the talks breaking down completely.[9] On July 24, the U.S. president declared that the last known supply of petroleum will be used exclusively by the U.S. and that America will not sell or trade any oil to foreign parties.[10] As if to insult the communist state further, the United States government revealed the first cold fusion power cell to the public.[11][12]

The situation was dire. Although China was able to tap a large deep-sea deposit of oil below the Pacific, it was unable to make use of it due to sabotage. American interference was suspected.[13] Pushed up against a wall, Chairman Cheng decided on an ambitious and extremely dangerous plan: Invasion of Alaska and seizure of its natural resources by force. Chinese troops swarmed the state, with the primary push focusing on the city of Anchorage, necessary to maintain a link with the Chinese mainland. The Anchorage Front Line became a true battleground.[14][10][15]

The invasion inadvertently triggered the gradual annexation of Canada, as the United States forced it to grant the right of passage to American military forces.[16] The deployment of the T-45 power armor helped prevent Chinese tanks and infantry from overrunning Alaska. The situation rapidly deteriorated into trench warfare as neither side was capable of breaking the stalemate and forcing peace terms on the enemy and the resource shortage precluded large offensive operations by Chinese motorized forces.[17]

The conflict raged for years, leading both sides to exploit all available resources to prop up their operations. The United States focused its attention on Canada, liberally exploiting its natural resources while ignoring protests made by Ottawan citizens.[18] Riots and protests eventually culminated in a sabotage attempt on an oil pipeline in 2072. The United States military used the incident as a pretext to invade Canada outright and begin annexation.[14][19] Meanwhile, China attempted to destroy American resistance with aggressive use of biological weapons, leading the U.S. government to commission West Tek with the development of a universal cure on September 15, 2073.[20] The economy of the People's Republic relied heavily on fossil fuels, including uranium fuel, China having mined the most uranium in the world as of 2077. Despite this, the supply did not meet the demand and was the impetus for the invasion of Alaska, as it teetered on the brink of collapse due to the resource crisis.[9][21]

War in ChinaEdit

Despite claims of fighting a defensive war, American infantry and mechanized divisions launched an invasion of the Chinese mainland in 2074. However, with its economy stretched to the breaking point by the war on three fronts, the U.S. was unable to overcome its foe. American units were bogged down on the Chinese mainland, putting a further drain on American resources and supply lines.[22] By 2076, the war had raged for a decade with no end in sight. Both China and the United States teetered on the brink of collapse at this point. However, the U.S. gained an advantage to offset the problems and the introduction of the T-51 power armor in June helped to tip the scales in favor of the U.S. military. The next generation of power armor resolved problems existing in older generations of armor. Mechanized cavalry units outfitted with the T-51bs were sent to the Alaskan and Chinese fronts, carving a swath through Communist forces. The Chinese economy crumbled under the onslaught as supply lines from nations annexed by the Beijing regime started falling apart.[8] The American regime did not fare any better. In August, food and energy riots start in urban centers across the United States. A state of emergency and martial law was eventually declared, with U.S. military forces being deployed on the domestic front to fight their own countrymen. The United States became, effectively, a military junta.[23]

2077 brought even worse news for the Chinese communists. The Anchorage Reclamation ended with a decisive American victory on January 10, with Anchorage back under U.S. control and Chinese forces retreating across the front.[24][25][26]

China was backed into a corner, as the United States could allocate its military resources to destroying resistance in mainland China. With the loss of Alaska, the disintegration of its supply lines, and a renewed American offensive on the Chinese front, spearheaded by the newest T-51b powered armor units, China could not defend itself.[13] As if expecting immediate retaliation, the American oligarchy retreated to their shelters, planning a contingency to maintain the war effort even if nuclear strikes occurred.[27] Bases across the United States were sealed and troops redeployed to front line conflicts to maintain the American offensive with great difficulty.[28]

The Great WarEdit

Nuclear weapons were launched on October 23, 2077. Vaults are sealed as the air raid sirens blare for the last time. Within two hours, both the United States and China ceased to exist as nations, their cities vaporized in nuclear fireballs.[29]

Remnants of Chinese culture and individuals survive in the United States after the war. The Shi of San Francisco are descendants of the crew of a Chinese submarine that beached in the ruined city and are one of the most advanced organizations in the wasteland.[30] On the opposite coast is the Chinese Remnant, the remains of the Chinese intelligence network in the United States, ghoulified and eking out an existence in a fortified safehouse within the ruins of Washington, D.C..

Artifacts of the Chinese infiltration are also commonly encountered in areas with a heavy infiltrator presence and as war trophies brought home by US servicemen; these include the People's Republic of America Radio, Type 93 Chinese assault rifles, Shanxi Type 17 Chinese pistols, and imperial officer jians.[31]


Chinese society was built on the principles of Maoism, a form of communism derived by Mao Zedong from Marxist-Leninist doctrine, but it is unknown how much of the doctrine survived to 2077.[32]

The shortages caused by the resource crisis and ongoing war with the United States resulted in strict rationing being instituted, with lotteries being used in particularly difficult situations to issue rations to Chinese citizens without prejudice. In practice, these were routinely manipulated by the government to reward faithful service.[33]


China was a single-party communist state, ruled by the Communist Party of China.[34] The head of state is the Chairman (equivalent to the United States' president), with the last leader to hold this office being Chairman Cheng.[35] China also had a president named Xin in 2073, though it is unknown what his relationship to Cheng was.

Like any sovereign state, China routinely maintained embassies in foreign nations. In spite of the war, the Chinese embassy in Washington D.C. remained open, with Xiu-Ling serving as the last ambassador to the United States.[36]


Chinese Propaganda Poster

A propaganda poster of the People's Liberation Army, showing the contrasting tech level of China: Conventional weapons and uniforms with experimental high tech weapons and advanced bombers.

The People's Liberation Army relied on its vast reserves of manpower and industrial capacity to maintain its edge, though unlike the United States, the focus was put on firepower rather than personal protection. Chinese soldiers were issued jumpsuits rather than hard combat armor, though the Type 93 assault rifles that were the workhorse of the army were significantly more powerful than standard American R91s. Key to the Chinese doctrine was tanks, used to support infantry operations during the invasion of Alaska. However, when they were countered by early power armor Americans deployed, China realized that it had no analog and rushed to create its own versions, focusing on stealth technology as a counter.[17]

Beyond stealth, the Chinese had an extremely effective intelligence and security apparatus. Apart from concealing its research, Chinese operatives infiltrated mainland United States and set up an extensive covert network of spies and intelligence operatives. The largest of their spy networks were located in and around Washington, D.C., with strongholds throughout the region. China even managed to set up regular patrols by Chinese submarines, such as the SSN-37-1A. Chinese saboteurs have also attempted to sabotage the Hoover Dam in Nevada.[37][38]


Due to little success in creating a power armor of comparable performance,[39] Chinese researchers focused their efforts elsewhere and managed to create practical active camouflage technology, commonly referred to as stealth technology. The development of Hei Gui stealth suits allowed for easy penetration of enemy lines.

China's efforts continued apace and by 2075 was rumored to possess an entire fleet of stealth submarines, developed in the Shaanxi Province, nicknamed the "Ghost Fleet."[40] As such, stealth suit equipped Crimson Dragoon units stabilized the frontline, while the stealth submarines ensured that China would retain nuclear capability even in the case of a total frontline collapse.[41][42][43]



China is mentioned in every Fallout game, and the country's remnants were to appear in the canceled Fallout Extreme.

Behind the scenesEdit

  • In Fallout 2, the Shi-Huang-Ti (named after the first emperor of the Qin dynasty Qin Shi Huang) submarine was planned to play a bigger role in the game - armed with conventional missiles and hidden in the San Francisco Bay it could destroy the PMV Valdez heading to the Poseidon oil rig that was used as the headquarters of the Enclave.
  • Chinese forces would also appear in some form in Black Isle Studios' canceled Fallout 3, code-named Van Buren.
    • Shortly before the Great War started in 2077, a Chinese infiltration and sabotage team discovered the Hoover Dam secret genetics laboratory - Classified Sub-Level 1C - and tried to destroy Hoover Dam, so the genetic work could never be used against them. Some of the Chinese stealth soldiers made it into Sub-Level 1C, while others were planting bombs in the main generator rooms - Scum Pits. One of the bombs went off prematurely and alerted all of Hoover Dam, including the guards in S1C. Things become cloudy in the reports due to the chaos that ensued, but suffice it to say that the Chinese were defeated, the generators were heavily damaged, and S1C was compromised. A couple of Chinese stealth soldiers and four scientists were trapped in S1C after the hatch was sealed. The Prisoner could find the soldiers there and use the materials from their stealth armor to make his own armor.[44]
    • Chinese Hei Gui units managed to steal Limit-115 samples during the Hoover raid, but they were killed in Denver in a crowded public area, breaking the vials with the virus, unleashing the New Plague on Denver.
  • Similarly, the canceled Fallout Extreme would also feature China: Although the communists in China started the Great War, they couldn't finish it. Imperial remnants from places like Taiwan swiftly took the country back from the Reds, and crowned a new emperor of China. The new dynasty, however, did not like how America ended up in the Great War, and are building a massive missile to destroy the dangerous Brotherhood of Steel.



  1. Museum of Technology placard: "This is the actual skeleton of Captain Carl Bell who died on May 5, 1961 after his Space Capsule crash landed. Captain Bell is credited as being the first human in space on board the Space Capsule Defiance 7, but this has been constantly refuted by both the Soviet Union and China. Defiance 7's flight lasted for a total of 12 minutes and 7 seconds as it achieved one full revolution around the Earth. Donated by Edwina Bell."
  2. Fallout Bible 0: "2060 The Euro-Middle Eastern War ends as the oil fields in the Middle East run dry... there is no longer a goal in the conflict, and both sides are reduced almost to ruin."
  3. Fallout Bible 0: "2060 Traffic on the streets of the world stops moving. Fuel becomes too precious to waste on automobiles, so alternatives are explored - electric and fusion cars begin to be manufactured, but factories can only make limited amounts. Pressure on fusion research increases."
  4. Terminal, Intelligence Report, Yang, Wan (alias)
  5. Fallout Bible 0: "2062 Despite quarantine measures, the New Plague continues to spread, fueling national paranoia."
  6. Terminal, Know the Signs!
  7. Neighborly letter
  8. 8.0 8.1 Fallout Bible 0: "2076 JunePower Armor prototype completed, resulting in the Power Armor players find in Fallout 1. This is the pinnacle of Power Armor technology before the Great War. Many of these units are sent to China, and they begin to carve a swath through the Chinese forces. The Chinese resources are strained to the breaking point, and the supply lines from the nations China has annexed begin to break down."
  9. 9.0 9.1 Fallout Bible 0: "2066 Spring As the oil resources dry up across the globe, China's fossil fuel dependency causes an energy crisis in the nation. China, bordering on collapse, becomes more aggressive in its trade talks with the United States. Unwilling to export oil to China, talks between the United States and China break down."
  10. 10.0 10.1 Sierra Depot GNN transcript
    Note: Chris Avellone's timeline from the Fallout Bible retcons part of the holodisk, explaining that the information it contains is non-canon, as that the Sierra Depot soldiers modified the transcripts out of boredom.
  11. Fallout Bible 0: "2066 Summer Adding further insult to the Chinese-American relations, the first crude fusion cell is unveiled, one of the results of the Power Armor project. Devices designed for the fusion cell begin to be manufactured. Incorporating fusion power into the general US infrastructure begins, but the process is too slow to supply power to the regions that need it. Nearly thirteen years later, few sections of the United States were supplied with fusion power."
  12. Fallout Bible 5: "2066 Summer Adding further insult to the Chinese-American relations, the first crude fusion cell is unveiled, one of the results of the Power Armor project. Devices designed for the fusion cell begin to be manufactured. Incorporating fusion power into the general US infrastructure begins, but the process is too slow to supply power to the regions that need it. Nearly eleven years later, few sections of the United States were supplied with fusion power."
  13. 13.0 13.1 Fallout 3 Official Game Guide Game of the Year Edition p.43: "Chinese Army (Simulated)
    U.S. Army (Simulated)
    With conditions deteriorating between the United States and China, a military presence in Alaska was established to prevent a possible invasion across the Bering Strait. With increasingly scarce oil reserves, a last deep-sea deposit below the Pacific Ocean was claimed by China before allegedly being sabotaged by American special operatives. Strained relationships spiraled downward into conflict as China marched on Alaska, and the Sino-American War of 2066—2077 erupted. Under the command of General Jingwei, the Chinese Army usurped control of Alaska's oil pipeline and reserves. In response, the Americans began what came to be called "The Alaskan Reclamation Operation" (2067—2077).
    Under the leadership of General Constantine Chase, the U.S. Army battled fiercely to the front lines of the conflict before Chase began deploying specialized Power Armor units that began pushing the Chinese back. Future Power Armor suits were further refined as the conflict dragged on, and the Trans-Alaska Pipeline was reclaimed. With resources flowing through Canada, strained diplomatic tensions between Canada and the United States becoming problematic, and Canadian forces attacking the pipeline, the country was annexed.
    A combination of inclement weather, constant American bombardment and trench warfare, and U.S. Powered Armor unit attacks sweeping through mainline China, the Chinese supply lines weakened and finally broke down completely. By the beginning of 2077, the city of Anchorage was finally liberated, the Chinese eradicated, and the operation deemed a success. A commemorative memorial was erected in Washington, D.C., in honor of the soldiers who fought and perished for the greater American good. Violence between America and pockets of Canadian freedom fighters continued throughout 2077, until the Great War obliterated almost all infrastructure, commerce, and human life."
    (Fallout 3 Official Game Guide faction profiles)
  14. 14.0 14.1 Briefly mentioned in the Fallout Intro with no date. Date is mentioned only in the Fallout Bible timeline.
  15. Fallout Bible 0: "2066 Winter In the winter of 2066, China invades Alaska. The Anchorage Front Line becomes a true battleground."
  16. Fallout Bible 0: "2066 Winter As a sign of increasing tension between the two countries, Canada proves reluctant to allow American troops on Canadian soil or allow American planes to fly over Canadian airspace. The United States and Canadian tensions rise, but Canada eventually backs down, and US troops pass through Canada. This sets the stage for the Canadian annexation in 2076."
  17. 17.0 17.1 Fallout Bible 0: "2067 The first suit of Power Armor is deployed in Alaska. While lacking the full mobility of future versions, this Power Armor is incredibly effective against Chinese tanks and infantry. Its ability to carry heavy ordinanceIcon sic becomes key in various localized conflicts, and it has the power to destroy entire towns without endangering the wearer. China rushes to create its own versions, but they are many years behind the United States."
  18. Fallout Bible 0: "2069 Canada begins to feel the pressure from the United States military as the US draws upon Canadian resources for the war effort. Vast stretches of timberland are destroyed, and other resources in Canada are stretched to the breaking point. Many Americans refer to Canada as Little America, and Canadian protests are unheard."
  19. Fallout Bible 0: "2072 The United States' increasing demand for Canadian resources causes protests and riots in several Canadian cities. An attempted sabotage attempt of the Alaskan pipeline is all the military needs as an excuse to begin its annexation of Canada... which in fact, had already begun in 2067."
  20. Fallout Bible 0:
    "2053 The socially transmitted "New Plague" arises, killing tens of thousands. The United States closes its borders and the first-ever national quarantine is declared. The source of the plague is unknown, but rumors persist that it is a genetically engineered weapon."
    "2062 Despite quarantine measures, the New Plague continues to spread, fueling national paranoia."
    "2073 Sept 15 As China becomes increasingly aggressive with their use of biological weapons, the United States government felt that a countermeasure was needed. The Pan-Immunity Virion Project (PVP) is officially formed and plans are made to begin experiments at the West Tek research facility in Southern California."
    "2077 February FEV Research is leaked to the world through an unknown source. Protests in many major cities and governments around the world, as well as accusations that the US was responsible for the New Plague. FEV is seen as the threat it is, and serves only to fuel tensions."
  21. Pioneer Scout camp terminal entries; Pioneer badge exam terminal, Miner
  22. Fallout Bible 0: "2074 Contrary to their claims of seeking only to retake Alaska from the Reds, American Power Armor units, infantry, and mechanized divisions are deployed to China, but they become bogged down on the mainland, putting a further drain on American resources and supply lines."
  23. Fallout Bible 0: "2076 August Food and energy riots begin in major cities throughout the United States. Military units begin to be deployed in cities within the United States to contain rioters, and many temporary jails are constructed. A state of emergency is declared, and martial law soon follows."
  24. Fallout Bible 0: "2077 January 10 Alaska is reclaimed, and the Anchorage Front Line is again held by the Americans."
  25. Capital Post Top Stories -- January 11, 2077, Commies Crushed - Alaska Liberated!
  26. Capitol Post newspaper Monday, January 11, 2077.
  27. Fallout Bible 0: "2077 March Prepared for a nuclear or biological attack from China, the president and the Enclave retreats to remote sections around the globe and make contingency plans for continuing the war."
  28. Sierra mission statement
  29. Captain Maxson's diary
  30. San Francisco and Shi
  31. Appearance of Chinese troops in Fallout 3.
  32. I Married a Maoist
  33. Chinese Intelligence bunker terminal entries; Extraction terminal
  34. Although not touched upon in Fallout, China was explicitly named as communist in Fallout 2 by President Dick Richardson, Frank Horrigan, and subsequently the Fallout Bible and Fallout 3.
  35. Liberty Prime: "Chairman Cheng will fail. China will fall."
    (Liberty Prime's dialogue)
  36. M.A.R.Go.T.: "The Senate Luncheon with Chinese Ambassador Xiu-Ling scheduled for October 31st at noon has been indefinitely postponed."
    (M.A.R.Go.T.'s dialogue)
  37. Icon cut American intelligence report Icon cut
  38. Terminal (Colonel Cassandra Moore's Second Office)
  39. Red Shift power armor
  40. The Switchboard terminal entries#.3E_2075_Dec_17
  41. Fallout item description: "{5400}{}{Stealth Boy}"
    "{5401}{}{A RobCo Stealth Boy 3001 personal stealth device. Generates a modulating field that transmits the reflected light from one side of an object to the other.}"
    Note: This is a reverse-engineered Chinese technology and provides information on the underlying mechanics.
  42. Museum of Technology placard: "This is the RobCo "Stealth Boy" Model 3001 Personal Stealth Device. Developed by Robert Mayflower, the Stealth Boy generates a modulating field that transmits the reflected light from one side of an object to the other making the bearer almost invisible to the untrained eye."
    Note: This is a reverse-engineered Chinese technology and provides information on the underlying mechanics.
  43. Simple armor: "The Chinese solution to invasion by U.S. forces in power armor was its Hei Gui stealth armor, worn by elite Chinese "Black Ghost" counterinsurgency/terror units. Not much was known about this armor, save that it had active camouflage systems as well as technology that enhanced reflexes and heightened perception. Hei Gui technology was the basis for the unstable "Stealth Boy" wrist units developed in the U.S."
    Note: While Simple was never properly released, Hei Gui stealth suits are confirmed to have been reverse-engineered by the U.S. at Big MT and elsewhere, while the adverse effects (for super mutants) of the Stealth Boy units were canonized by Fallout: New Vegas.
  44. Hei Gui armor as a possible part of the equipment is confirmed by one of Van Buren screenshots also
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